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THOMAS JLUTCOLX 
CASEY 

LIBRARY 
1923 




A (.'AMP ON" T II K BO r NT) A ft Y 1. IXE. 



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Vi 



. 



TH 




ATURALIST 



VANCOUVEE ISLAND AND 
BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



BY 



JOHN KEAST LORD, F.Z.S. 

XATCRAUST TO THE BRITISH NORTH AMERICAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION-. 




-YX1AKWATEKX (THE CROSSIN'm. 

IN TWO VOLUMES VOL. II. 

LONDON: 
RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET, 

PUBLISHER IX ORDJXARY TO HER MAJESTY. 

1866. 



CONTENTS 

OF 

THE SECOND VOLUME. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Californian Ground-squirrel Burrowing Owl and Green- 
Racer Snake Skunk and its Odour Return to Vancouver 
Island Keyhole Limpet and Parasite (Lepidonotus Lordi) 
Dentalia or Money-Shell ...... 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Pigmy or Medicine Owl and Nest Superstitious Dread of 
Indians Golden- Crest and its Cradle Ruffed Grouse . 27 

CHAPTER III. 
The Store-keeper American Dipper 46 

CHAPTER IV. 

Nature of Country following the 49th parallel from the Gulf 
of Georgia to the Silmilkameen Giant Trees Suniass 
Prairie and Lake Northern Swift White-bellied Swallow 
The Yellow-bird Barking Crow North-western Fish 
Crow Hudson's Bay Magpie Steller's Jay Country 
East of the Cascades The Osoyoos Lakes New Musk- 
rat Fiber Osoyoosensis (Lord) New Spongilla, Spon- 
gilla Lordii (Bowerbank) 62 

VOL. ii. a 



VI CONTENTS OF 

CHAPTER V. 

PAGE 

Rejoin the Commission Journey to Walla-walla and Back 
Scenery of the Upper Columbia Old Fort Walla-walla 
Walla- walla Indians New Walla-walla City The 
Horse-Fair Indian Mustangs Curious Custom of the 
Sis-ky-ou Indians The American Garrison An Ugly 
Adventure Overland trip to Walla- walla Cedar Spring 
and the Shore-larks Sage Cock, or Cock of the Plains 
Townsand's Ground-squirrel A difficult March The 
Prairie Hare Castle and Chimney Rocks Reach Walla- 
walla 82 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Great Plain of the Columbia Pond Turtles and their 
Nests The Sage Rabbit Find curious Stone Implements 
A trade in Flints and Marine productions at some remote 
period, and a Skull (vide illustration) unaltered by pres- 
sureLeave Walla-walla Cross the Snake River 
Pelouse Indians and their Horses Falls of the Lower 
Pelouse A Disagreeable Intruder Pleasant to see Trees 
again Sand-flies Breeze-flies Clark's Crow The Spo- 
kan River Walker's Prairie Parry's Ground-squirrel 
The way the Three Species of Ground-squirrels re- 
place each other on the Plain Parkman's Wren and its 
Nest Nuthatches The Tits Dead Man's Prairie- 
Arrive at Fort Colville . 99 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Colville Valley our Headquarters The white-bellied 
Swallow CliffS wallow Bank Swallow Rough-winged 
Swallow Barn Swallow and its strange Nesting-place 
Violet-green Swallow Western Meadow Lark Town- 
send's Flycatcher American Ravens Bullock's Oriole- 
Brewer's Blackbird or Western Grackle or Canada Vay 
Whisky Jack Lesser Redpole The Lazuli Finch- 
Oregon Ground Robin Grey-crowned Finch . . 137 



THE SECOND VOLUME. Vll 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAGE 

Route to the Summit Camp Spokan Plains Fearful De- 
struction of Horses Syniakwateen (or 'The Crossing') 
A Butterfly Assemblage The Fox-sparrow Goatsuckers 
The Osprey Redstart Louisiana Tanager Dusky 
Grouse Franklin's Grouse Ruffed Grouse Harris's 
Woodpecker Gairdner's Woodpecker White-headed 
Woodpecker - - Three-toed Woodpecker Log-cock - 
Lewis's Woodpecker A new Cicada (Cicada Occideu- 
talis) 156 

CHAPTER IX. 

From Syniakwateen to the Pack River From Pack River 
to the Kootanie The Tobacco Plains Hudson's Bay 
Company's Trading-post The Kootanie Indians A Koo- 
tanie Canoe The Galton Range and Flathead River 
The Moose Deer Wapiti or Oregon Elk Caribou 
Virginian Deer White-tailed Deer Black-tailed Deer- 
Mule Deer The Ascent of the Rocky Mountains Camp 
in the Glen Yellow-haired Porcupine Say's Striped 
Squirrel Pinus Contorta Rock Ptarmigan The Moun- 
tain Goat The Bighorn and Rock- whistler . , .177 

CHAPTER X. 

Camping Packing Provisioning The Boundary Tour . 197 

CHAPTER XI. 
Indian Dogs 212 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Natives, their Customs and Traditions . . . 226 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Departure from Fort Colville Vancouver Island Crabs . 262 
APPENDIX 289 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



FOR 



THE SECOND VOLUME 



A Camp on the Boundary-line . . . frontispiece 

Syniakwateen (the Crossing) .... vignette 
An Indian Burial-ground .... to face page 103 
Indian Lodges . . . . ., 255 

Vancouver Island Crabs 262 



VOL. II. 



ERKATA IN VOL II. 

Page 23, line 2, for dry read dyed 
,, 38, 18, for ruts read mountains 
105, ,, 1 1, for clifts read cliffs 
120, ,, 27, for uuite read quite 

141, 26, for illustration in vol. i. read frontispiece vol. ii. 
186, 19, for jaws they read the jaws are 
208, 10, for lynch, read synch 
,, 209, ,, 7, for lynch read synch 
223, 27, for risy read risky 
,, 245, 2, for Cowlibz read Cowlitz 
,, 250, ,, 15, omit word page after illustration 
251, 22, * This illustration was unavoidably omitted, not being 

ready in time for publication 

255, ,, 15, for Symukwateen read Syniakwateen 
267, 22, for SAYAS read HYAS. The letters N. S. to be 
omitted 



VANCOUVER ISLAND 

AND 

BKITISH COLUMBIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

CALIFORNIAN GROUND-SQUIRREL BURROWING OWL AND GREEN- 
RACER SNAKE SKUNK AND ITS ODOUR RETURN TO VANCOU- 
VER ISLAND KEYHOLE LIMPET AND PARASITE (LEPIDONOTUS 

LORDl) DENTALIA OR MONET- SHELL. 

THE CAMP of the Commission is pleasantly 
situated in a hollow, rather than a valley, between 
rounded hills, perfectly bare of timber, that form, 
as it were, a background to the little town at the 

' < > 

Dalles. A small stream trickled near the tents, 
with only a few gnarled oaks growing on its 
banks. 

Two animals are seen constantly, and appear 
in unusual abundance. One dwells amidst the 
rocks, that are piled in vast masses at the foot of 
the ravine, where we are camping, and is equally 
plentiful along the rocky banks of the Columbia 
river to the valley of the Des Chutes, beyond 
which, in the direction of Fort Colville, it is never 

VOL. II. B 



2 THE WOS-KEE. 

seen. This is easily accounted for. The Columbia 
ground-squirrel (Spermophilus Douglassii) lives 
principally on acorns; and the oak ceasing to 
flourish beyond the river, it becomes the bound- 
ary-line both to the oak and its dependant. 

The Indians prize the Wos-kee both for its skin 
and carcase, devouring the latter, and sewing the 
former into robes. The Wos-kee gets as fat as a 
tame rabbit, and hybernates during winter. A shy 
active little animal, it is most difficult to obtain, 
dashing into the burrows betwixt and under the 
rocks on the slightest noise. They occasionally 
travel out on the grass-flats some distance from 
their retreats, and if frightened, elevate the long 
foxlike tail over the back, and in a series of 
most astounding bounds, make all speed for 
home. In the absence of their favourite acorns, 
they devour grass, roots, and the bark from any 
shrubs comeatable. The fur is dark-brown, with 
very long black hairs scattered through it. The 
ears are long, and a whitish circle round the eye 
gives the animal a comic expression, a kind of 
pantaloon face. Chin and throat a foxy-brown ; 
sides yellowish, divided from the darker shade 
of the back by a wide stripe ; tail bushy, and quite 
as long as the body, which is about eleven 
inches. 



THE GREEX-KACER. 3 

Living near the water, but occasionally wan- 
dering amongst the grass, are quantities of bril- 
liant green snakes, the green-racer (Basca- 
nion vetustus, Baird & Grd.). Not only does 
it bask on the grassy banks, or if frightened glide 
through the herbage, with arrowlike rapidity, 
but climbs trees with the ease and rapidity of a 
squirrel. In pursuit of tree-frogs, its favourite 
food, the snakes so nearly resemble green succu- 
lent branches, that I have often put my hand on 
them when birds' -nesting or seeking for insects. 
It always startled me, though I constantly took 
them in my hand, as I should a plant or a cater- 
pillar, for examination. This snake's general 
residence is in the hole of a ground-squirrel, 
which is also chosen as a nesting-place by the 
western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) . 

I dug out several squirrel-holes whilst at this 
camp ; in one I found two eggs of the burrowing 
owl, the female owl, a racer-snake, and an old 
lady-squirrel. The burrowing owl is strictly of 
diurnal habits, and feeds principally on crickets, 
grasshoppers, large beetles, and Iarva3. I do not 
think it ever captures small animals or birds ; a 
peaceful harmless bird, with little to boast of in 
appearance, voice, or wisdom. Why called Athene 
it would be hard to find out. Not by any means 

B 2 



4 MEPHITIC BOUQUET. 

plentiful, pairs of them are seen occasionally 
along the entire course of the boundary-line ; but 
they are more plentiful southwards, through 
Oregon and California. 

If on strolling up the stream, in the evening or 
early morning, your eyes should fail, the nose at 
once discovers that a skunk (Mephitis mephitica) 
has been taking a constitutional, and distributing 

O i o 

a stench that, once inhaled, is not likely to be 
forgotten. Mix the very worst mud from the 
Thames on a summer-day, at low-water, with 
Rimmel's shop, a gasworks, fellmonger's yard, 
and knacker's boiling-furnace ; and I will venture 
to assert that the odour produced, even if concen- 
trated by the subtle power of chemistry, would 
be a mild and pleasant perfume, when matched 
against that of the skunk. 

It is lucky for the trade of the perfumers, that 
their skill in essences, has not as yet attained to the 
power of concocting a perfume, equal in per- 
sistency to that secreted in the oil-glands of this 
most disagreeable animal ; if such were the case, 
the sale of one small phial would supply an in- 
dividual for a lifetime. A handkerchief odorised 
with scent so permanent, would defy the combined 
powers of soap, soda, and washerwomen to re- 
move the mephitic bouquet, as long as the fabric 
retained its entirety. 



A DISAGREEABLE PRIZE. 5 

Often in trapping, a poaching skunk has tried 
his thieving propensities on the dainty and 
tempting bait tied to a steel trap, cunningly laid 
in the run of a sable, and paid the penalty of 
his dishonesty by spending a night fast by the 
leg. The nose was quite enough to reveal what 
the captive was ; the trap, the grass, the shrubs, 
the flowers, were all alike redolent of skunk. The 
smell met you, borne on the wings of the breeze, 
long ere the eye was capable of discerning the 
prisoner. Then to kill and extricate him from 
the trap was sure to entail a share of the stench, on 
gloves and clothes. Again and again I have buried 
gloves, trap, and trousers deep in the earth, and let 
them remain for weeks a remedy of no avail : 

Bury and wash, or rub as you will, 
The scent of the skunk will cling to them still. 

My constant companion was the Russian setter, 
that had as great a weakness for killing skunks, 
as he had for fishing out dead salmon. For days, 
nay weeks, after one of these encounters, I could 
hardly bear him near me; the sickening foetor 
seemed to gain in strength as it exhaled from 
the dog, volatilised by the heat of his body. 

We had a store near the Fraser River, a kind 
of depot for provisions, from which the men 
were supplied who were employed in making the 



6 MIDNIGHT DISTURBANCE. 

boundary-line. In this store our storeman slept 
for some time, and, as bedsteads were superfluous 
luxuries, he camped on the floor. By some evil 
chance, a small colony of skunks obtained an 
entrance into the dormitory, and deemed a consti- 
tutional trot over the bed an enjoyable luxury. 
The skunk, jealous of interruption, if the sleeper 
(the victim of skunk incubus), hastily turned, 
then, as from a powerful syringe (as I have seen 
young ladies squirt scent from small metal bottles 
purchased at the Crystal Palace), the offended 
little night-walker fired its bottled nuisance over 
both the man and his bed. ' Once bit, twice 
shy,' says the adage. A light was carefully 
concealed behind a package ; a double-barrelled 
gun, loaded with No. 5, capped and cocked, was 
placed within easy reach, and careful watch and 
ward kept. In happy ignorance, in marched the 
skunks for their nocturnal lounge, and, in the 
dead silence of the night, bang, bang ! goes the 
gun, awaking everyone in the camp adjoining. 
I heard a Yankee packer, who slept near my tent, 
rouse up and exclaim, in nasal anger, 'Waal, 
thar's that varmint a fire-huntin' again. I'll be 
dog gone if I wouldn't sooner roost in a tree 
than camp down war them skunks is a makin' 
tracks all the night ; I can smell em har ! ' 



SKUNK AND ITS ODOUR. 7 

Intensely offensive though he be, nevertheless 
he is a handsome beast. The predominant 
colour is jet-black. A narrow snow-white line 
marks the centre of the forehead. Just behind 
the ears, from the nape, is a triangular patch of 
white, somewhat tinged with yellow. Confluent 
with this patch, two narrow lines of white run 
parallel to each other, for a few inches ; then 
diverge rapidly, and extend along the back to 
near the tail, which is long and bushy, like that 
of the fox ; but black, with a white tuft at the ex- 
treme tip. The length of the mature animal, 
from the nose to the root of the tail, is twenty- 
one inches. 

The oil-glands are situated at the base of the 
tail. The animal possesses the power of ejecting 
the secretion with great force, and will hit an 
enemy at the distance of ten yards. The Indians 
and Voyageurs, after dissecting out the glands, 
devour the body with great gusto. The dissec- 
tion and skinning are always done under water, 
in a running stream ; by adopting this plan, the 
effluvia is washed away. I have tasted roasted 
skunk, but cannot say much in its praise. Its 
flavour is decidedly skunky, although the flesh is 
delicately white and tender. 

The habits of the animal are strictly noc- 



8 A POACHER. 

turnal, and a more predatory, thievish, treacherous, 
bloodthirsty poacher you could not ' skeer up.' 
His residence (which is always by the side of 
some still pool on the open prairie) consists of a 
large hole, dug in horizontally a task rendered 
easy of performance when his powerful digging 
claws are brought into operation. Beaten roads 
extend from this hole to the water's edge ; and 
the entrance to this den is usually strewed with 
ducks' feathers, the tips of the wings, the heads, 
beaks, and feet, together with bones deftly picked. 
Ducks are his favourite birds; but, you ask, 
how can he possibly catch them? In this way. 
His instinct guides him to reside near the pools 
on which water-birds come to sleep and pass the 
night. When everything is still and hushed, 
and the unsuspecting birds are floating in fancied 
security, with their heads tucked under their 
wings, then out steals the crafty skunk, and 
creeping noiselessly down his roadways, swims, 
without the slightest splash, towards the 
drowsy birds, dives under the one that suits his 
taste, seizes it by the breast, and, spite of all its 
flapping, quacking, and struggling, drags the vic- 
tim ashore, kills, and eats it. He seldom gets more 
than one in the night ; for the other birds take 
timely warning, and leave for some safer retreat. 



EETURN TO VANCOUVEK ISLAND. 9 

I have often wondered for what purpose this 
offensive secretion was given to the skunk. 
Any book on Natural History will tell you that 
it is a protection against all enemies. This I do 
not believe. Why given to the skunk and not to 
the pine-martin, ermine, or fisher, that live in the 
same localities, feed in the same robber-fashion, 
and have exactly the same foes ? It is for other 
than defensive purposes. 

The skunks are principally confined to America, 
extending through both halves of the continent, 
though a few are found in Mexico and Texas. 
They appear to form a connecting link betwixt 
the badgers and weazels proper. 

Now let us return to Vancouver Island, and 
take up the story where I left it, to go mule 
hunting. 

From amongst the singular group of annelides, 
found along the coast of Vancouver Island, 
many of which are new species, and will be found 
described in the Appendix, I select the most 
curious : 

Lepidonotus Lordi (Nov. Spc., Baird.). This 
species is about three inches long, and rather more 
than one-third of an inch in diameter at the broadest 
part of the body. It tapers gradually from the 
head to the tail, which is only two-sixteenths of 



10 LEPIDONOTUS LORDI. 

an inch broad. The colour is of a light brown, 
a broad line of a much darker brown running 
along the whole length of the centre of the back. 

On the under-surface a groove runs down the 
centre of the body throughout its whole length. 
The elytra are thirty-five pairs in number, thin, 
membranous, and of a light-brown colour. The 
two first overlap each other slightly in the 
middle, but for the rest of its length, the centre 
of the back is uncovered. The antennae are five 
in number the central one short, of much the 
same length as the internal ones ; the two ex- 
ternal the longest, white, with a bright black 
ring round the upper part, but leaving the point 
white, which is acute at the apex. The feet are 
tolerably stout, and the two divisions are both 
furnished with sharp, but curved, pointed bristles. 
The superior cirri are white and of a moderate 
length, the inferior ones very short. 

A good many specimens of this species were 
taken, and they were all found nestling under 
the shell, and occasionally coiling themselves 
under the foot, of the animal of Fissureila 
cratitia. 

The Keyhole Limpet, I may briefly state for 
the benefit of the unlearned in shellfish, is a 
gasteropodous mollusc, belonging to the family 



THE KEYHOLE LIMPET. 11 

FissurellidoB'j its generic name, Fissurella, being 
derived from the diminutive of fissura, a slit. 
In shape and colour the shell closely resembles 
the ordinary limpet (Patella vulgata), so common 
on our British coasts ; possessing a like power 
of adhering to the rocks, with a tenacity requir- 
ing knife and hammer to overcome ; its shape is 
conical, the base being occupied by a powerful 
muscle, which is not confined entirely within the 
shell. It performs the office of legs by its ex- 
pansion and contraction, a means by which the 
creature moves from place to place on the rocks; 
a system of progression you may see for your- 
selves, if you watch a garden-snail taking a con- 
stitutional over a cabbage. This muscle also 
enables it to fix itself at pleasure, aided by an 
atmospheric pressure of 15 Ibs. to the square 
inch. They browse on seaweed, and are usually 
between tide-marks. 

At the apex of the shell is a hole, somewhat 
oval: hence the name of keyhole. This orifice 
is for the escape of the outgoing branchial cur- 
rent. There are about 120 species, inhabiting 
all parts of the world India, China, Australia, 
and the Pacific at Vancouver Island. When 
shell-collecting near Esquimalt Harbour, I fre- 
quently picked up empty fissurellas on the beach ; 



12 A FAVOURITE HUNTING-GROUND. 

but diligent research at dead low-water, in the 
rock-pools, failed to discover the living fish ; 
neither did the dredge ever bring one up, from 
deep or shallow water. The empty house, in 
this instance, was less desirable than a bad 
tenant, as the mansion without its liege lord was 
a useless ruin. 

Macauley's Point, a long ridge of rocks 
running far out to sea, but bare at low-water, 
was a favourite hunting-ground of mine, the snug 
little rock-basins generally affording some novelty, 
left prisoner by the receding water. An unu- 
sually low tide disclosed a ridge of rocks I had 
never before seen, an opportunity for explora- 
tion not to be neglected. Clinging to the slippery 
wrack, and scrambling down a vertical ledge, I 
discovered a regular cave, its sides and floor 
literally covered with the strangest collection of 
marine wonders I had ever gazed on : 

It was a garden still beyond all price; 
E'en yet it was a place of paradise. 



* 



Here, too, were living flowers, 

Which, like a bud compacted, 

Their purple cups contracted, 

Now, in open blossom spread, 

Stretched, like green anthers, many a seeking head. 

Others, like the broad banana growing, 

Raised their long wrinkled leaves of purple hue, 

Like streamers wide outflowing. Kchama. 



SEA-GAKDENS. 13 

Actinia spread their treacherous petal-like 
arms, gorgeous in every variety of exquisite 
colouring : hufre holuthuria, like brilliantlv- 

O / O / 

painted cucumbers, clung to the dripping rock ; 
starfish of all sizes and tints chitons in black 
spiny mail shells of purpura and trochus, and 
hosts of kindred. Annelides too were peeping 
from out their cases of stone and horn, their ex- 
quisite feathery tufts, fishing-lines, and traps 
wondrously beautiful, but, like the embrace of a 
siren, fatal in its clasp ; all these creatures, hungry 
and anxious, awaited the coming tide. Biding 
his time like the rest in this stronghold was the 
Keyhole Limpet. 

I had found him at last, and at home, so 
pounced upon him as a lawful and legitimate 
prize. Knife and hammer soon severed his 
close attachment to the rocks ; and turning him 
up, to take a peep at his powerful ring of muscle 
and strangely-formed breathing apparatus, I spied 
a worm evidently very uneasy, about three inches 
long, brown, and in shape like an ancient dagger- 
blade. He appeared to me to be wriggling out 
from betwixt the folds of the foot or the mantle, 
and apparently most anxious to escape. 

My first impression was, that he was a captive 
that by some mischance had got imprisoned 



14 A STRANGE TENANT. 

under the shell of the fissurella ; and, thanking 
his lucky stars for such a fortunate deliverance, 
wished to make the best of his liberty, and rejoin 
his friends. But in displacing other shells, I 
found in nearly every one a similar tenant: the 
secret was discovered the worm was a parasite, 
that lived in peace and good-fellowship with the 
Keyhole, recalling to my remembrance Oppian's 
lines on the pinna and the parasitic crab 

One room contains them, and the partners dwell 
Beneath the convex of one sloping shell, 
Deep in the watery wastes the comrades rove, 
And mutual interest binds their mutual love. 

That the parasite worm does no harm is clearly 
proved by the healthy state of the mollusc in 
whose shell it takes up its abode. How far 
mutual interest may conduce to mutual friend- 
ship, I am unable to say. 

On more carefully examining the position of 
the worm, I found it was invariably coiled away 
in a semicircle under the foot, like a ribbon on 
its edge, never flat. This seems to me a wise 
provision; for the pressure of the muscles when 
the limpet grips the rock would crush a soft- 
bodied worm to death, if flat ; but by being edge 
on, which is the position chosen, all risk of harm 
is avoided, as it fits in a cleft between two layers 
of soft material. 



POSSESSION. 15 

Tying several of them tightly round to prevent 
the worm escaping, I brought them home in situ. 
At least four out of every six contained a para- 
site, and, what is rather strange, the worms were 
nearly all of one size. A query or two naturally 
suggest themselves. How did this friend or 
intruder, whichever it may be, first get installed 
as a lodger? Did he get in as a baby, and thus 
become an adopted child ; or did he slip in as a 
full-grown aiinelide, defying the Keyhole Limpet 
to turn him out ? How does he procure food ; and 
on what does he subsist ? I confess utter inability 
to give a satisfactory reply : my impression, how- 
ever, is, that the parasite grows from a minute 
germ (if that is a right term) in the place and 
position in which I found it. 

I put them in sea- water, after taking them out 
of their sanctuary, but in no single instance did 
one ever go back again. I tried to replace them, 
but could never accomplish it, or induce the worm 
to remain. Not that this proves anything, inas- 
much as experience teaches that interference 
with the regular habits of any of the lower forms 
of life is at once resented ; and the power, or will 
it may be, to adapt itself to altered circumstances 
is but slowly acquired. I cannot conceive the 
possibility of a large worm, the feet armed with 



16 ' EAISED,' WHERE IT LIVES. 

curved bristles, like bundles of minute fishhooks, 
being quietly permitted to creep under the shell, 
and force its way by crawling round and round the 
foot, by a system of hook-and-drag. In no other 
way, however, could it edge in, without worrying 
and enraging the fissurella beyond all power of 
endurance ordinary pressure being only needed 
to squeeze the intruder flat as a pancake. By 
gently tickling it with a bit of seaweed under 
the shell, one would say that patience was a 
virtue but little cultivated by the fissurella ; the 
slightest touch, and down goes the shell with a 
force that cuts the weed in two like scissors. 
What chance would a soft-bodied worm stand? 
Not the slightest. The parasite, like Topsy, was 
' raised ' where it lives. 

What part a worm, doomed, as far as we know, 
to pass its whole life captive in the shell of a 
mollusc, plays on Nature's wide stage, is a problem 
beyond human ken. We know nothing was created 
in vain that even the tiny diatom has its use; 
and this insignificant annelide serves a purpose 
and fulfils a destiny, in the endless maze of life, as 
important as the lordly lion, or even man himself. 

It may not be generally known that the Den- 
talium, or Money-shell, is used as an article of cur- 
rency by the native tribes of North-west America. 



THE MONEY-SHELL. 17 

A genus of univalve shells, principally worthy 
of remark for brilliancy of colouring, and suscep- 
tibility of taking a high polish, and usually desig- 
nated cowries, has long been used as a medium of 
currency. The animal living in the shell is a 
gasteropodous mollusc, and the money-shell be- 
longs to a species well known in commerce as 
the Cyprea moneta, or money cowrie. This shell 
is the money, the current coin in use by the 
natives of Bengal, Siam, and various parts of 
Africa. The grand supply comes from the 
African coast, where the shells are collected 
by the negresses and exported to various parts 
of the world. Just as the cowrie is used in 
other parts of the world as money, so the denta- 
lium, in North-west America, is applied to a 
similar purpose. 

The form of the shell, as its name at once 
suggests, is tooth-shaped; but the tooth, the 
resemblance to which has given rise to the 
name, is the long holding or canine tooth of 
a carnivorous mammal: the holding-fang of 
the dog may be cited as a familiar illustration. 
The tenant of the shell belongs to the family 
Dentaliada3. 

The shell has an orifice at both ends, and the 
animal inhabiting it is attached to its calcareous 

VOL. n. c 



18 HOW AND WHERE THE MONEY-SHELL LIVES. 

house near the smaller opening. Eyes it has 
none, nor any long tentacles or fishing-arms. 
The blood is red, sexes united, and the breathing 
organs a symmetrical pair. 

The food of these molluscs appears to be strictly 
of an animal character. Living, as I shall further 
on explain, in the sand, they wage war on and 
continually devour small bivalves, foraminifera, 
or any small marine zoophyte that an unlucky 
destiny may chance to wash within reach of these 
submarine cannibals. 

The habit of the animal is to burrow in the sand, 
the small end of the shell being invariably down- 
wards, to live in water from four to eight fathoms 
in depth, and always to choose a sheltered har- 
bour or arm of the sea as its haunt. The large 
end of the shell placed close to the surface of the 
sand, allows the animal free scope to seize upon 
any unsuspicious wanderer that prowls near it. 

The dentalium I now more particularly allude 
to has been recently described by Dr. Baird, in a 
paper read before -the Zoological Society, with 
notes on its habits and monetary value, appended 
by myself: 

4 Amongst the objects of Natural History and 
Ethnology brought from Vancouver Island and 
British Columbia by Mr. Lord, is a belt composed 



NORTH-WESTERN SPECIES. 19 

of numerous specimens of a species of Dentalium 
strung together. The species bears an exceed- 
ingly close resemblance to that described by 
Linnaeus as Dentalium entalis (Entails vulcjaris of 
Risso, and of Dr. Gray's " Guide to Mollusca"), 
and appears to me, notwithstanding the difference 
of habitat, to be undistinguishable from that Euro- 
pean species. It has, however, been described 
by the late Mr. Nuttall as Dentalium pretiosum ; 
and a figure has been given of it by Mr. Sowerby, 
in one of his late numbers of the " Thesaurus 
Conchy liorum." 

' From a careful comparison of the typical 
specimens of D. pretiosum, in Mr. Cuming's col- 
lection, there can be no doubt of the identity of 
that species with the specimens brought by Mr. 
Lord from Vancouver Island; those in Mr. 
Cuming's collection are said to be from California. 

' In examining the old river gravels on the 
banks of the Columbia River, alluded to in vol. ii. 
along with numerous other articles, such as human 
bones, flint instruments, &c., Mr. Lord found a 
number of specimens of a species of Dentalium 
considerably eroded and worn, which I have 
compared with some in Mr. Cuming's collection, 
and find identical with the Dentalium striolatum 

of Stimpson, from Newfoundland. I strongly 

c 2 



20 WHERE PROCURED. 

suspect that both these species, D. striolatum and 
D. pretiosum, are only very slight varieties of the 
old Linnaean species, Dentalium entalis (Entalis 
vulgaris). 

'The habitats of the three species are very 
different; but notwithstanding this, in the ab- 
sence of distinct specific characters, I should 
hesitate very much making distinct species of 
them. However that may be, the history of 
the specimens brought by Mr. Lord is very 
interesting; and these few observations must 
be considered only as introductory to the very 
instructive notes drawn up by that gentleman, a 
perusal of which will prove the best apology for 
these brief preliminary remarks.' 

The money-shells are procured upon the north 
end of Vancouver Island; also in the bays and 
inlets along the mainland coast north of latitude 
of 49 to Sitka; and is common likewise round 
Queen Charlotte's Island. The genus has an 
enormous geographical range; and it is, per- 
haps, strange that the shells from North-west 
America, from California, and those obtained on 
our own coast, when placed side by side, scarcely 
present any material specific differences. 

When a chief dies, of course, according .to the 
redskin creed, he will require in the next world 



STRANGE TRIBUTE TO THE DEPARTED. 21 

the happy hunting-grounds to which he has gone 
all the luxuries and necessaries his good fortune 
enabled him to enjoy in this : so it generally 
happens that two or three slaves (male and 
female), two or three horses, and two or three 
dogs are shot, and laid on or in the earth where 
rests the remains of the departed ! But I have 
always observed that very old slaves, and very 
ancient canine and equine quadrupeds, are 
deemed by the sorrowing relatives quite good 
enough to send on such a hazardous journey 
a wise economy, worthy of a better cause. 
These slaves are bought and sold after the 
fashion of dogs and horses, and shells of the 
dentalium are the sovereigns and shillings used 
to pay for them. 

Indians are, without an exception, most in- 
veterate gamblers. I do not know a single tribe 
and I have seen something of almost every 
tribe east and west of the Rocky Mountains 
that have not some curious games of chance. 
Along the coast the stakes are usually strings 
of shells, and the game played is called met-ala. 
It is played with the four incisor-teeth of the 
beaver, engraved much after the fashion of our 
dice ; but, instead of being thrown from a box, 
they are sent broadcast from the hand, on a deer 



22 THE GAME OF MET-ALA. 

or bearskin spread on the ground. Slaves, dogs, 
horses, and even a man's wives, are frequently 
lost at this game. There is a beautiful set of 
these gambling-teeth in the Ethnographical 
Room of the British Museum, as well as strings 
of the dentalium, as strung for money, so that 
any person who may be curious on the subject 
can easily see them. 

The intrinsic value of the shell, as an article 
of barter, entirely depends upon its length ; and 
the question as to whether the shell when pro- 
cured shall, figuratively speaking, represent a 
sovereign or a shilling, is calculated by the Indians 
in this way : If twenty-five shells placed end to 
end measure a fathom or six feet in length, these 
twenty-five shells, when strung together side by 
side, are called a lii-qua. The squaws string 
them very neatly. A small bit of dried sinew, 
taken from the suspensory ligament of the rein- 
deer (here called the caribou), is passed through 
the shell, there being, as I have already said, a 
hole at each end. These transverse pieces of 
ligament are made securely fast to two lateral or 
side-cords, which side-cords are fastened together 
at each end ; so that the string of shells, when 
complete, is like a ribbon made of holding-teeth. 
The string is generally ornamented most ela- 



THE HI-QUA. 23 

borately with fragments of nacre from the 
haliotis shell, and tufts of dry wool taken from 
the mountain-goat (Capra americana). 

The short, broken, and inferior shells are strung 
together in the same manner, but in various 
lengths, and represent shillings or pence, as the 
string is either long or short, or the shells 
defective. All inferior strings, irrespective of 
either length or quality, are called kop-kops. 
The lii-qua represents the sovereign, the highest 
standard of currency, and, as a rule, would pur- 
chase one male or two female slaves. The value 
of the slave, estimating it by the sum paid in 
blankets for a slave at the present day, would be 
about 50^. sterling. Forty kop-kops equal a hi- 
qua in value, but various small bargains are 
made, and small debts paid, with kop-kops, only 
just as we pay away shillings, or lesser coin. 

Since the Hudson's Bay Company have estab- 
lished trading-stations along the coast, at the north 
end of Vancouver Island, and on the main rivers 
inland, both east and west of the Rocky Mountains, 
blankets and beaver-skins have become money, 
so to speak, and the medium of exchange. If you 
bargain with an Indian in the interior to do any 
service, you agree to give him so many skins, either 
per diem, or as a fixed price for the work that is 



24 BEAVER THE MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE. 

to be done ; but in making this agreement, it is 
not understood that the employer must really 
pay so many beaver-skins. What is meant is 
this that the Indian gets an order from you on 
the trading-post of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
for goods equal to the value of the beaver-skins 
you contract to pay him. 

Every article given in exchange by the 
Hudson's Bay Company is calculated according 
to the value of beaver-skin, and as beaver may 
be either plentiful or scarce (or, in other words, 
dear or cheap), so are goods bartered for fur cal- 
culated as to value. Bears, foxes, otters, martens, 
fishers, and lynxes are respectively worth so many 
beaver- skins each, or, beaver being dear, it will 
require two marten-skins to equal a beaver. 
Then, as a blanket is worth so many beaver- 
skins, or as a beaver will pay for so many 
charges of powder or strings of beads, the beaver 
becomes the standard of value. If you buy a 
horse, a dog, a wife, or a salmon, you contract 
to pay so many skins. On the seacoast, where 
the savage and the paleface have seen much 
more of each other, the rate of service is now 
generally asked for in blankets, shirts, or the 
1 almighty dollar.' 

But in early days, ere the red and white men 



BEADS, MONET-SHELLS, AND STONE IMPLEMENTS. 25 

knew each other, the dentalium was the only 
currency in use. It is quite clear, and also a 
very curious fact, that the hi-qua and kop-kop 
were known and used by the Indians of the 
interior at some distant period, although no trace 
of their use, or knowledge of the shell, exists 
among them at present ; for in digging out some 
flint implements, stone beads, and other things 
I need not here enumerate, from the drift, I found 
numbers of dentaliums and round buttons made 
of the Haliotis nacre. The" distance from the 
nearest seaboard was about a thousand miles, 
and the language spoken by these inland Indians 
quite incomprehensible to the Indians on the 
coast. But as I have more to say about the 
various tribes occupying North-west America, I 
shall here only explain the system adopted by 
the Indians to capture the money-shells. 

An Indian when shell -fishing arms himself 
with a long spear, the haft of which is light deal ; 
to the end of it is fastened a strip of wood placed 
transversely, but driven full of teeth made of 
bone ; the whole affair resembles a lono- comb 
affixed to the end of a stick with the teeth very 
wide apart. A squaw sits in the stern of the 
canoe, and paddles it slowly along, whilst the 
Indian with the spear stands in the bow. He 



26 FISHING FOR MONEY-SHELLS. 

stabs this comblike affair into the sand at the 
bottom of the water, and after giving two or 
three prods draws it up to look at it : if he has been 
successful, perhaps four or five money -shells 
have been impaled on the teeth of the spear. It 
is a very ingenious mode of procuring them, for 
it would be quite impracticable either to dredge 
or net them out; and they are never, as far 
as I know, found between tide-marks. 



PIGMY OWL. 27 



CHAPTER II. 



PIGMY OR MEDICINE OWL AND NEST SUPERSTITIOUS DREAD OF 

INDIANS GOLDEN-CREST AND ITS CRADLE RUFFED GROUSE. 



THE PIGMY OWL. 

Glaucidium Gnoma, Wagler ; Strix passerinoides, Tern. ; 
Strix infuscata, Tern. ; Glaucidium Calif ornicum, Sclater ; 
the Medicine or Death Owl of the North-west American 
Indians. 

THIS rare and beautiful little owl, the smallest 
of all the North American species, I shot for the 
first time on Vancouver Island. It has also been 
obtained, though rarely, in Oregon, Washington 
Territory, and California. 

The habits of this tiny bird appear little known. 
Its diminutive size, shy solitary habits for it 
always hides amongst the thick foliage of the oak 
or pine, except when feeding renders the task of 
observing it, or obtaining a specimen, at all times 
difficult; hence a few dried skins, from which its 
generic and specific characters have been deter- 
mined, are the only specimens we possess. How 



28 MY HIDING-PLACE. 

the recluse lives, where it lives, or what it does, 
are secrets. 

Early in the spring, whilst collecting the mi- 
grant, birds which arrive at Vancouver Island in 

o 

great numbers and variety of species some to 
remain the summer through, others only to rest 
awhile as they journey farther north to their 
breeding-grounds Dame Fortune, fickle though 
she generally be, deigned f<3r once to smile, and 
afforded me an opportunity to watch the habits 
of the Pigmy Owl. Two of these strangers 
selected as their home a gnarled and twisted 
oak (Quercus garryana}, that grew alone on 
an open patch of gravelly ground near a small 
lake. Close by this lake were the remains of an 
Indian lodge, that had been once used as a fishing- 
station, affording me a capital place of conceal- 
ment wherein to watch the manners and customs 
of these to the aborigines potent and much 
dreaded spirits. 

My camp was not far away, thus enabling me 
to reach my hiding-place at the first blush of 
morning. No sooner did the rosy light creep 
down the valley and spread over the plain, than 
the owls were up and stirring evidently hungry 
from a night's fasting; for, like a well-con- 
ducted couple, they retired early to rest. 



THE TINY OWL'S FAVOURITE FOOD. 29 

Their flight short, quick, and jerking, similar 
to that of the sparrowhawk is quite unlike 
the muffled noiseless flap of the night-owl, as it 
sails along over marsh and meadow in pur- 
suit of mice, lizards, or any benighted rodent 
that has incautiously strayed from its place of 
safety. The food of this little owl is entirely 
insectivorous, its favourite morsel a fat grass- 
hopper or field-cricket : not that it by any means 
refuses or objects to breakfast on an early riser, 
be it beetle or butterfly, that, like the proverbial 
worm, is so devoid of prudence as to permit the 
' early bird ' to gather it. 

When in pursuit of food, the owls perch on a 
small branch near the ground, sit bolt upright in 
an indolent drowsy manner, until their quick 
eye detects an insect moving on the plain ; then 
they pounce suddenly upon it, hold it down 
with their small but powerful claws, and with 
their sharp beaks tear the captive to pieces. 
The hard wing-covers and thighs, if a cricket, 
or the wing-shields if a beetle, are rejected, only 
the soft abdominal parts being eaten. Hunger 
satiated, they return to their tree, and, cud- 
dling lovingly together, sit and doze away their 
time, protected from the blazing rays of the 
midday sun by the foliage of the sturdy oak. 



30 THE GLOAMING. 

Their breakfast disposed of, I used to abandon 
my post, and, like the owls, eat and sleep under 
some shady covert. 

As near as possible to the mergence of twilight 
into night what the Scotch call the ' gloaming,' 
and in our country is known as 'cock-light' when 
the woodcock skims through the grove and the 
blackbird chink-chinks his vesper hymn exactly 
at this time the owls invariably came out ; and, as 
if for the purpose of stretching their wings rather 
than feeding, took erratic flights round the tree, 
and up and down the plain, chasing one another, 
and performing all kinds of inexplicable manoeu- 
vres. Occasionally they settled on the ground, but 
never remained long. I do not think they ever 
capture an insect whilst it is on the wing, and a 
very small quantity of food appears to satisfy their 
wants. As it became dark, having supplied their 
evening necessities, they again returned to their 
dormitory, and, as I imagine, slept away the night. 

In their habits they appear to have nothing in 
common with the typical owls (Strigince\ and 
approximate, though slightly, to the day-owls 
(Nycteinince). Cassin, in his ' Birds of Califor- 
nia,' calls this owl Glaucidium infuscatum, regard- 
ing it as the Strix infuscata of Temminck. Dr. 
Sclater, however, proposes to call it Glaucidium 



THE PIGMY OWL'S NEST. 31 



Californicum.* There can be no doubt that the 
two names, Strix infuscata and Strix passeri- 
noides, were used by Temminck to designate 
the same species, which is strictly from South 
America, and quite distinct from our little friend, 
though closely allied. The name Glaucidium gno- 
ma, used by Wagler,! adopt as having precedence. 

Its specific characters need not be given here, 
being readily obtainable by referring to any of 
the list of works quoted in the synonyms. I may 
mention, however, that the grand and marked 
specific differences, as distinguishing this from 
the South American species, are that in G. gnonia 
the toes are naked, the colour generally lighter, 
and the size somewhat less. Total length of male, 
7 inches ; wings, 3^> inches ; tail, 3 inches. The 
sexes are very nearly alike, but the female is rather 
the larger, and more thickly spotted with white. 

Early in May two small eggs were laid 
round, and very rough on the surface a large 
knot-hole in the branch of the oak being selected 
as the nesting-place. Not a particle of anything 
was used as lining, the eggs being deposited on 
the bare wood. The length of time occupied in 
incubation I regret inability to state, having to 
shift my camp some distance away soon after the 
* 'Proceedings Zoological Society,' 1857, page 4. 



32 A BIRD BOGEY. 

female commenced sitting. When next-I visited 
the tree, both young and old were gone, much to 
my disgust and annoyance. By the scattered 
feathers, that lay ominously beneath the tree, I 
imagine a prowling martin or fisher had played 
havoc with my pet family, and devoured, perhaps, 
both parents and children. 

The Indians, without exception, hold this little 
owl in terrible dread. To see one in the day, or 
to hear its feeble cry, not unlike a stifled scream, 
is a fatal omen to brave or squaw ; the hearer or 
near relative is sure to die ere the end of the 
moon. To kill one is an unpardonable heresy. 
I nearly got into very serious trouble for shoot- 
ing a specimen of this little owl. An Indian 
deputation, headed by their chief, waited on me, 
and protested against my risking theirs and my 
own inevitable destruction. All reasoning was 
futile, and there was nothing for it but to procure 
all the mystic birds and mammals by stealth. 

It is a curious fact that owls, in every part of 
the world, have always been deemed birds of ill- 
omen. The crumbling ruins of an ancient 
monastery, the old tower in the ivy-clad castle, 
and the ghost's chamber in a haunted house, are 
invariably associated with owls and goblins. 

Pliny, in his ' Natural History,' when speaking 



A BIRD OF EVIL. 33 

of birds of evil, says : ' The owl is a dismal bird, 
and very much dreaded in public auguries ; in- 
habits deserts that are not only desolate, but 
dreary and inaccessible ; it is a monster of night, 
nor does it possess any voice but a groan.' 

Virgil alludes to it as foreboding the death of 
Dido : 

Solaque culminibus ferali carmine bubo 
Saepe queri, et longas in fleturn ducere voces. 

Shakspeare, too, saddles this poor bird with the 
guilt of ominous predictions. 

Casca, in alluding to the events preceding 
Caesar's death, says : 

And yesterday the bird of night did sit, 
Even at noonday, upon the marketplace, 



Hooting and shrieking. 



In Egypt, in bygone years, if the Pacha pre- 
sented a gentleman with a drawing or any re- 
presentation of an owl, it was meant as a polite 
hint, to the recipient of the gift, if he did not 
dispose of his own life, the powers supreme would 
save him the trouble. More modern poets rarely 
scandalise or malign the owl's character. As 
knowledge of the physical sciences has become 
diffused, so the mists of superstition have 
vanished, arid modern writers, even in poetic 
composition, truthfully allude to its habits, 

VOL. n. D 



34 OWLS' POWERFUL ' MEDICINE/ 

Coleridge, in ' Christabel :' 

Tis the middle of the night by the castle clock, 
And the owls have awakened the crowing cock. 

Again, Longfellow, in ' Hyperion,' speaks of 
the owl ' as a monk that chants midnight mass in 
the great temple of Nature.' 

With every Indian tribe I have ever met with, 
either east or west of the Rocky Mountains, the 
owls, whether large or small, are always held 
sacred their feathers being worn as charms by 
the medicine-men or conjurors of the tribes. It 
is perhaps fortunate for the owls they are so 
dreaded. There are many Indian traditions I 
could relate, where terrible calamities have in- 
variably followed the warnings of the Pigmy 
Owl, but space forbids. 

Why such an exquisite type of Creative Wis- 
dom beautiful in plumage, retiring in habit, 
harmless, and gentle should inspire terror and 
aversion, are mysteries I must leave to wiser 
heads than mine to solve. 

Hardly has the snow left the hillsides and sunny 
slopes, and whilst deep patches still linger in the 
valleys and shaded spots; when early spring- 
flowers peep out, here and there, from some 
sheltered spot, and the bursting buds but faintly 
reveal the leafy treasures hidden within their' 



THE GOLDEN-CRESTED WREN, 35 

horny casings the sloppy transition state, 
when summer has not come, and winter has not 
gone then it is our eyes, and hearts too, are 
gladdened by the appearance of flights of birds ; 
some passing on, others remaining to build, rear 
their fledglings, and enjoy the northern sun- 
shine. One of the earliest migrants is the Golden 
Crest (Eegulus satrapa.) They are the most 
sociable of birds, and evidently are fond of good 
society, and plenty of it, until their domestic 
duties demand a certain period of seclusion. 
Then the tiny faithful couples leave their restless 
friends, as their friends also leave each other; 
by-and-by to join together again, reinforced 
with hosts of Misses and Masters Wren, to in- 
dulge in arboreal revels, until the rough autumnal 
winds bids them depart for the more genial and 
sunnier south. 

The Golden Crests are always, except during 
the nesting-time, in company with the Tits 
and Nuthatches. Flocks, consisting of fifty 
or sixty, may be seen, completely making 
the round of a prairie, travelling along from 
bush to bush ; sometimes ascending into the pine- 
trees, at others clinging to the slender stalks 
of grass and wild flowers, even their diminutive 
forms bending the fragile support to the ground 

D 2 



36 A CLEVER ARCHITECT. 

ever singing, chattering, quarrelling, but never 
resting. It is a pleasant sight to watch this 
army of insect-hunters, climbing back down- 
Avards, peering curiously into every crack and 
crevice under the leaves, and into the flowers. 
Concealment is of little avail to the insect ; sharp 
eyes spy him out, and sharper beaks nip the 
idler, and drag him from his lair. Often a moth, 
or other winged insect, takes refuge in flight, 
when surprised in his nest; then a host of 
nimble pinions dart after the fugitive, and, spite 
of twists and turns and angular eiforts to escape, 
tit or golden-crest catches him, and, descending 
to the ground, himself pursued by his fellow- 
hunters, picks off the gay wings and legs of his 
prize, then swallows the dainty but limbless morsel. 
There are few more skilful architects than 
the Golden Crest. The place selected for the 
nest is generally at the end of a pine branch, 
where, like a cradle, it is rocked by every passing 
breeze; but so ingeniously is the nest contrived, 
that, rock and swing as it may, neither eggs nor 
young can ever be jerked out. The nest is 
tightly woven, and composed of twigs, moss, 
lichen, fronds of the larch, and dead leaves ; a 
structure, when completed, exactly resembling 
the branch of the tree to which it is really 



THE RUBY-CROWNED WREN. 37 

lashed, with ropes of .vegetable fibe. The fronds 
of the fir form admirable sunshades, or umbrellas, 
as circumstances may require. The inside is lined 
with feathers, soft hair, and spiders' web the web 
seems used for the purpose of warping the other 
materials tightly together ; a partial dome covers 
the top, under which is the entrance-hole. The 
circumference of the nest is about nine inches. 
Six is. about the usual number of eggs laid. 

In the valley of the Columbia the golden-crests 
begin building in June, and on Vancouver Island 
somewhat earlier. Tits and nuthatches generally 
nest in holes, in the same tree the wren selects 
for her pendant nursery. 

The general colouring of this handsome little 
bird is yellowish-olive inclining to green, the 
head being crowned with a tuft of bright golden- 
orange feathers. Their song, soft and mellow, is 
trilled out nervously, like the tremulous notes of 
young Lady shaky, 011 her first vocal performance. 

A very frequent companion of the Tits is the 
Ruby-crowned Wren (Regulus calendula^ some- 
what larger than the Golden Crest, of a brighter 
green on the back and neck, and more yellow 
under the wings. The crown, instead of being 
orange, is bright scarlet. I met with it on both 
slopes of the Cascades. It resembles the golden- 



38 RUFFED GKOUSE. 

crest in all its habits, and builds a very similar 
nest. The young have no crest until the second 
year after leaving the nest. These birds are 
rarely seen in the summer during the breeding- 
time, as their haunts are seldom accessible to 
man. 

I have already spoken of the Sumass and Chi- 
lukweyuk prairies. Whilst camping there I 
had abundant opportunity to watch the habits of 
many curious residents in these prairies and their 
adjacent forests of pine : 

THE HUFFED GROUSE OEEGON GROUSE PAR- 
TRIDGE, PHEASANT. 

Ptonasa Sabinii, Baird ; Tetrao umbellus, Richardson, F.B.A. 

This grouse has an immense geographical 
range : west of the Rocky Mountains, from the 
borders of California, throughout Oregon and 
Washington Territories, extending high up on 
the slopes of the Rocky Mountains ; plentiful in 
all the timbered land between the Cascades and 
Rocky ruts along the banks of the Columbia, 
over the ridge of the Cascades, down their western 
slopes to the Fraser, on all the islands of the Gulf 
of Georgia, and everywhere on Vancouver Island 
to its extreme north end, and on the mainland 
north to latitude 53. East of the Rocky Moun- 



THE TRYSTING-SPOT. 39 

tains, its very near relative, Bonasa umbellus 
(Steph.), again ranges through Canada indeed, 
I may fairly say, over the greater part of America. 
But what follows applies to Baird's new species, 
found only west of the Rocky Mountains. 

The habits of this grouse are singularly er- 
ratic, and his food is of the most varied cha- 
racter. In the spring-time his favourite haunt 
is by the side of some stagnant pool, or in the 
brush round a marsh where the crab-apple 
(Pyrus rivularis} and the black-birch and alder 
grow, where fallen timber lies crumbling and 
rotting away; where everything mouldy, dark, 
damp, and oozy seems to hold high festival; 
where flabby fungoid growths spring like huge 
ears from moist-decaying wood, and gigantic 
agarics sprout up in a night like mammoth fairy 
tables; here, too, the skunk cabbage, with its 
great green succulent leaves, grows in rank luxu- 
riance, covering up the surface of the mud like a 
huge mat. 

In such spots as these, in the month of April, 
the wooing begins. They regularly pair, and 
having once exchanged the nuptial promise, are, 
I think, most constant to each other during the 
nest-building and hatching time. During the 
time of pairing, and at intervals after the 



40 A DRUMMER WITHOUT A DRUM. 

chickens are hatched, the male produces that ex- 
traordinary sound called 'drumming.' Again and 
ao-ain have I sat and watched the proceeding. 

O 

There is a solemn quiet an almost deathlike 
silence pervading these mighty wilds of the far 
North- West, unlike anything we can conceive 
where the hand of civilisation has been busy. The 
bird squats on a log or fallen tree, motionless, as 
though it had no life ; suddenly, all the feathers 
are, as it were, reversed ; tail erect, like a strut- 
tin o- turkey-cock; the ruff round its neck stands 
out, stiff and rigid, and the wings droop on either 
side of the log as if broken. They slowly vibrate, 
and then produce a sound, loud and clear, like 
the thrum of a double-bass string; faster and 
faster it comes, as the wings move with greater 
rapidity, until the beats have no distinctness, 
and the sound has become a throbbing hum. 
He suddenly ceases, and after a few minutes' 
' rest goes through the same performance. 

Perhaps the stillness I have referred to induces 
one to imagine the sound to be louder than it 
really is ; but if one did not see the bird, and did 
not know whence the sound came, a fertile brain 
could easily imagine it some demon drummer in 
active employment. For what purpose this 
sound is produced I am by no means clear: 



SETTLING THEIE DIFFERENCES. 41 

t 

whether it is to intimidate the cocks and keep 
them off, or whether it is to proclaim his near 
proximity to the hen, or whether it is a sexual 
performance to demonstrate his love and devo- 
tion, are matters that the bird alone can answer. 
If he knew how constantly the sound betrayed 
him to the crafty savage, I rather think he would 
adopt a more silent system. Guided by the 
drumming, the redskin creeps like a weasel 
through grass and bush upon the unsuspecting 
bird, and, sending an arrow whistling through its 
ribs, - or half a dozen buck-shot from an old trade - 
gun, thus stops his fun, and ' turns his thoughts 
from mirth to gravity.' 

I have often seen cocks fight furiously during 
the pairing season, and their manner of adjusting 
their little differences is much after the fashion 
of our gamecocks. That old maxim, ' None but 
the brave deserve the fair,' is evidently a great 
grouse principle. Ruffing up their necks, head 
and back almost in a straight line, tail up, legs 
stiff, and wings dropped, they circle round and 
round each other, striking and pecking until the 
vanquished hides anything but his diminished 
head, and the victor bolts upon a log and drums 
furiously. 

The nest is complete about the end of May. It 



42 THE MOTHER'S STRATAGEM. 

is always placed on the ground under a fallen 
log, or at the foot of a bush ; and is composed of 
a quantity of dead leaves, lined with dry grass, 
bits of moss, and a few feathers. From ten to 
fourteen eggs are about the average number I 
have found ; in colour, dirty white, without any 
spots, or freckles of darker brown. I think I 
must have found at least ten nests in one swamp, 
near the Spokan prairies, en route to the Rocky 
Mountains. 

The moment they are clear of the egg, the 
chickens leave the nest and follow the mother. 
She calls them with a kind of clucking sound 
just like a hen, and covers them when resting. 
Like most of her tribe, the mother uses all kinds 
of feints and stratagems to lure an intruder from 
her young. I have seen an old hen ruffed grouse 
nutter along close to my feet, as if her legs and 
wings were entirely disabled, allowing me to 
almost put my hand upon her ; having thus de- 
coyed me on and on, until her chickens had time 
to conceal themselves, she would dart suddenly 
off, I daresay thinking how cleverly she had 
'fooled me.' It is a curious thing that this 
grouse when frightened rises with a loud rattling 
noise, but when it rises of its own free will, it is 
as noiseless as the flight of an owl. I have 
often, when lying down watching them, seen the 



WHITE-FLESHER VERY DELICIOUS. 43 

birds rise and fly upon a tree without a sound ; 
but only walk up to them,' and a sharp whirring 
noise is invariably produced when they flush. 
As soon as the chickens can follow, the dark 
swamp-brush is abandoned, and the favourite 
locality is an open hillside ; especially if a moun- 
tain-burn comes brawling down among the rocks, 
resting here and there in coy little pools 
drinking-foun tains of Nature's own contriving. 
Here too grass-seeds, berries, and insects are in 
abundance, and the woolly little chickens feed 
right royally. 

They never, like the sharp-tailed grouse, pack, 
but almost* invariably keep together in broods ; 
they love to frequent trails or sandbanks, 
where they can dust themselves. They are 
bitter enemies to ants : having a weakness for the 
eggs, they scrape and scatter to the winds their 
little wood-piles, the toil and labour of hundreds 
of busy architects, sending the building material 
flying far and wide, until the egg-treasury is 
reached, and ruthlessly despoiled. 

From September to Christmas the ' white- 
flesher' (for so he is named) is at his best, 
having had the full benefit and advantage of the 
berry and nut season ; his flesh is pure white, and 
he is most delicious before he begins to. devour 
the leaves of the fir ; this he does as soon as the 



44 A VERITABLE PERCHER. 

snow shuts him off from any other kind of living, 
and he then acquires a flavour of turpentine, 
which is anything but agreeable, Nice as he 
most unquestionably is for the pot, he is not a 
bird a sportsman would love. His system is to 
perch on the nearest branch ; and so accurately 
does the plumage resemble the lichen-covered 
bark of the trees, that it is difficult and often 
next to impossible to descry him. His habit 
when perched, if at all alarmed, is to crouch down 
the long way of the branch, the head and neck 
extended to the utmost, and the throat pressed 
tightly down; when in this position, although 
the bird has been close to me, I have been unable 
to see him ; and when you have fairly made him 
out, it is very difficult to shoot him. ' Shades of 
my grandfather !' I hear some gunner say, 'what, 
shoot a grouse on a tree !' Again I say, Yes. I 
wanted him for the pot, or his skin, or maybe for 
both. But, let me tell you, he can fly if he likes, 
and I know no grouse more strong or swift on 
the wing than the ruffed grouse, when it suits his 
humour to go. I have had several spurts of 
good shooting with this same white-flesher on the 
Sumass and Chilukweyuk prairies, and at other 
places west of the Cascade Mountains, on the 
banks of the Fraser river. 



TREEING A GROUSE. 45 

It was in October, and the snow was just be- 
ginning to mantle the hilltops in the livery of 
the Frost-king, warning bird and beast that it 
was time to retire into valley-quarters for winter. 
The grouse had come down from the hills, and 
were lying in the long prairie-grass, about a rifle- 
shot from the edge of the bush. They rose 
before my dog singly, and went off to the covert 
like a ball. I had No. 5 shot, and I soon found 
I could not venture to let them go very far. I 
made, however, a very fair bag, finishing off with 
some mallard and bald-pates, as I recrossed the 
prairie to my camping-ground. 

A great qualification in an Indian or trapper's 
dog is ' to tree a grouse ;' the dog flushes them, 
and the grouse perch at once upon the branches 
just above the dog's head, and peer down stu- 
pidly at him, craning their long necks to get a 
peep at the intruder thinking, doubtlessly, what 
a rare and curious animal it is. The dog, looking 
up as the fox did at the crow in the fable, barks 
and yaps with all his might ; this induces the 
gunner to come and see what it all means, and 
he too spies the grouse. If care is used to shoot 
the under birds, often three or four may be killed 
before the others are sufficiently awake to their 
danger to fly off. 



46 



CHAPTER III. 

THE STORE-KEEPER APLODONTIA LEPORINA AMERICAN DIPPER. 



THE STORE-KEEPEE. 

(Tamias guadrivittatus.') 

ONE of the liveliest, prettiest, merriest, and, to 
judge from appearances, the happiest little animal 
one meets with in North-western wilds, is a tiny 
squirrel, known, and feared by the Indians, who 
have a name for it, unpronounceable by any 
mouth of ordinary conformation ; and to attempt 
writing it is only to give a long list of double and 
single letters, the type-pattern for spelling Indian 
words. For example, ch-a-ta la-cli, what can 
you make of that? Corkscrew the word out, 
giving it all the throat-sound and tongue-twisting 
you can manage, and it has as little resemblance 
to the name, as rolled out from the larynx of a 
redskin, as the wheeze of a bagpipe has to the 
clear, rich, mellow note of the mocking-bird. 
To the scientific world my furry friend is 



NATURAL HAVEESACKS. 47 

known as Tamias (nearly as bad as Indian) ; 
tamias being Greek for 'store-keeper,' the generic 
title. The specific name tells us that he has four 
stripes, or ' ribbons J marking his skin. The 
Missouri Striped Squirrel is the familiar appella- 
tion of the white settler; the Ogress Squirrel of the 
savage why so named will be shown in the sequel. 

The specific characters are, briefly : Tail quite 
as long as the body ; a grey stripe along the top 
of the head, joining two others passing below the 
eyes; a hoary patch behind the ears; general 
colour, deep ferruginous red ; back marked with 
four equidistant stripes, nearly black, extending 
from the neck to the tail; length four inches, 
without the tail. Incisors (cutting-teeth) strong, 
and deep orange-colour on the outer surface; on 
each side of the mouth is a large pouch, opening 
just anterior to the molar teeth, and extending 
back to the shoulder. 

In these capacious sacks, seeds, bits of favourite 
roots, indeed anything either eatable or storeable, 
is carried to the 'store-keeper's' residence. The 
pouches are filled from the mouth ; the forefeet 
being used, much the same as hands, to press the 
cargo back, and tightly pack it. When emptying 
them, the forefeet are again called into requi- 
sition; placed behind the corpulent bags, the 



4s THE STOKE-KEEPER'S MANSION. 

contents are pressed out by a kneading kind of 
movement. 

Where a more striking evidence of Divine 
wisdom and forethought ! But for these leather 
bags, it would be utterly impossible for this little 
animal to carry in a store of provisions sufficient 
for his winter supply. He does not sleep, like the 
' Rock Whistler,' and live on his own fat, but 
only partially hybernates; and hence needs a 
stock of food, with which he provides himself 
during the sunny summer days. 

His mansion is usually under a fallen tree, or 
amidst the tangled roots of the giant pines. A 
small burrow neatly dug, and round as an augur- 
hole, leads in a slanting direction to an open ca- 
vity, neatly lined with dry leaves, blades of grass, 
and moss a bed soft as eider-down, wherein 
the 'store-keeper' sleeps. In an adjoining open- 
ing, on a kind of earthen shelf, is his store, neatly 
piled away, to be carefully hoarded, until the biting 
blasts of winter, sweeping through the forests, 
stripping land and tree alike of their verdure, warn 
the provident workman to retire into his snug 
quarters, not to shiver, cold and hungry, until the 
spring-time comes, and bids the flowers ope their 
blossoms, and the buds burst into leaf. Not a bit 
of it : his industry has provided not only a snug 
residence, but food in abundance, to supply his 



THE STORE-KEEPER'S HAUNTS. 49 

daily necessities a garrison in which he can defy 
wind, rain, frost, and snow, and bide his time 
until the Ice-king yields his sceptre to the genial 
ruler of the summer. 

This squirrel seems to live everywhere. Wan- 
der round the margin of the emerald-green 
prairie, and there, amidst the hazel, mohonia, 
vine-maple, and various shrubs that love the 
sunshine, the ' Store-keeper' is sure to be seen, 
skipping along on a dead stick, or scudding 
through the bushes ; stopping continually to 
have a peep at the intruder; sitting bolt up- 
right, with its tail erected, defiantly chattering 
angrily, in a kind of half-laugh, half-bark; then 
uttering a shrill chirp, a danger-signal to others, 
then makes for its hole and disappears. Paddle 
in a canoe down the surging stream, past the 
piles of driftwood, heaped mountains of dead 
trees ; and as the frail bark shoots by, you are 
certain to see the 'Store-keeper' scampering 
from log to log, his scolding and whistling lost in 
the noisy rush of the torrent. Dive into the dark 
shadow of the pine-forest, where mouldy life 
holds high festival where huge fungoid growths 
and giant agarics spring in flabby clusters from 
the oozy logs where the pools, thick and slimy, 
are covered with the green fleshy leaves of the 

VOL. II. E 



50 THE NUESEET. 

4 skunk cabbage,' and each branch and spray, 
draped with the black lichen (Lichen jubatus), 
seem mourning over death and decay on every 
side in these damp solitudes lives the ' Store- 
keeper,' merry and quarrelsome, as in brighter 
scenes. Climb the mountain-side, and scramble 
through the rock-walled ravine, where the pine 
clings to the stones rather than grows from 
their clefts ; where no murmuring streamlet cools 
and refreshes thirsty Nature, or breaks the solemn 
silence with its rippling music; and not even 
the footfall of the savage disturb its echoes ; and 
naught living, save the denizens of the air, that 
peep into its weird depths from the tree-tops, 
ever visits it : yet in the very loneliest of these 
glens the ' Store-keeper' is sure to be met with. 
Climb on higher, higher to the perpetual snow- 
line, marking the boundary betwixt life and icy 
desolation; and there too, on the very frontier, he 
bounds, and jumps from rock to rock, ever 
scolding, laughing, whistling, and toiling, to 
garner in his harvest. 

Two of them, husband and wife, took up their 
abode in an old sawpit, close to our winter- 
quarters, at Fort Colville ; and there constructed 
a nest, during the month of July, for the mamma 
to bring forth and rear her offspring in. I 



A QUAINT NEST. 51 

carefully watched them from day to day, and, 
with the exception of an occasional scolding, 
they took little heed of my presence. A hollow 
place was first cleared under one of the cross- 
timbers of an old sawpit ; then both worked hard, 
bringing blades of dried grass, leaves, and moss. 
I observed they carefully collected fragments of 
rag, and pieces of paper left by the sawyers ; so, 
to gratify this taste for the use of novel material, 
I brought out continually small bundles, com- 
posed of coloured threads, rags, paper, fragments 
of scarlet cloth, and small portions of gold and 
silver lace from my fishing-tackle stock. All these 
were greedily seized on, and woven into the nest, 
which, when completed, after about sixteen days' 
work, presented the most extraordinary appear- 
ance imaginable. Such a nuptial nest no squirrel 
ever had before, or, perhaps, will ever have 
again. I am sure they were proud of their 
achievement, and deemed it a triumph of squirrel 
architecture ! 

The family in due time came into the world; 
but any attempt to approach the nest was re- 
sented so furiously, yet combined with such 
evident terror for the safety of their babies, that 
I had not the heart to gratify my curiosity to see 
how many there were, and what they were like. 

E 2 



52 THE BABY STORE-KEEPER. 

Nearly three weeks passed, when the love of 
prying overcame all other scruples, and a peep 
into the snug, cosy, chequered retreat was irre- 
sistible. Separating with the utmost caution the 
walls of the entrance- hole, three baby- squirrels 
were visible, such queer little animals, they 
seemed all eyes and tail. The papa and mamma 
were both loud in their remonstrances, and 
frightfully angry at the impertinent intrusion; 
but as I did not touch the infants, and, as far as 
practicable, mended the torn entrance, why, it 
appeared to me there was not much ground for 
complaint. 

Visiting my pets on the following day, imagine 
my surprise at finding the nest empty, and 
the old and young vanished together. First I 
thought some poaching weasel had murdered the 
innocents; but no the old ones had carried 
them away into some other retreat, because I 
had looked at them, and meddled with the nest. 
Instinct here appears vastly near akin to 
reason ; what had happened once, the ' Store- 
keeper' evidently thought might occur again, and 
wisely took the precautionary measure of conceal- 
ment, selecting a spot unknown to the intruder. 

Its name, ' Ogress Squirrel,' arises from a 
singular Indian tradition, that I think is quite 



THE OGRESS LEGEND. 53 

worth repeating, as it shows us how readily unci- 
vilized man seizes on the supernatural to ac- 
count for everything beyond his comprehension. 
Spiritual agencies and wild myths form subjects 
for the daily chat round the lodge-fire; every- 
thing becomes mysterious that is not under- 
stood; the very language of the red-man is a 
tangled chaos of symbols, figures, and metaphors. 
A prominent performer in all their legends is 
a terrible old woman, half witch, half ogress, of 
very doubtful reputation, armed with teeth like 
a, wolf, and the claws of a grizzly-bear; her 
entire time spent in doing evil, eating children, 
and waging unceasing war on the good and 
virtuous. 

To make the story brief, it seems this amiable 
old lady (at some period far away in the dim 
history of the past) spied a fat dainty young 
'redskin,' the son of a brave and good chief, 
playing by the side of a mountain-burn, not far 
from the wigwam of his parents. With wily 
words of endearment, and holding out a basket 
filled with ripe berries and gaudy flowers, the 
witch-woman coaxed the baby-savage within 
reach of her terrible claws: as she clutched it, 
the father and mother saw their loved one's 
peril, too late to rescue, to save, beyond all 



54 A GEEAT MEDICINE. 

human power. There was but one chance, one 
last frail hope to cling to : falling on their knees, 
both prayed, and, in the agony of despair, be- 
sought the 'Great Spirit' to use his power and 
save their child give it back to them, or change 
it into any form, so that it escape the teeth and 
talons of the dreaded ogress. The prayer was 
heard, and the boy, assuming at once the form of 
a tiny squirrel, deftly slipped from out her grip, 
but not unscathed; the marks inflicted by four 
of her claws remain to this day on its back, as 
evidence of the story's truthfulness. 

Hence it is that Indian boys seldom kill this 
squirrel, ill-luck befalling all such profane trans- 
gressors, and that 'medicine-men' (the doctors 
and conjurors of the tribes) wear its skin as a 
potent and all-powerful charm. 

The ' Store-keeper,' bearing on its back the 
marks of the wicked old woman's finger-nails, 
may be seen by any who choose to visit the 
British Museum, where a specimen I shot is set 
up very near the ' rock- whistler.' 



THE DIPPEE. 55 



THE DIPPER. 

(Hydrobata mexicana.) 

Like the well-known gallinule, or water-hen 
(Gallinula cliloropus\ the dipper swims and 
dives with great facility ; the plumage, close and 
compact, is similarly adapted to resist moisture 
a wise provision, enabling the bird to remain a 
long period in the water without becoming wet. 
It resembles the starling in the form of the beak, 
falcate wings, mellow song, and feet, constructed 
on the type of ordinary perchers; bill without 
any bristle at the base, somewhat long and 
slender, and bent slightly upward; the culmen 
concave towards the tip, which is notched and 
curved; feet and legs strong, claws large, lateral 
toes equal ; tail very short. 

The colouring of the British dipper's plumage, 
though somewhat inclining to the sombre, is 
nevertheless chaste and pretty. The crown on 
the upper parts of the head and neck shades im- 
perceptibly away into the velvet-black of the 
back, scapulars, and wing-coverts. The breast, 
front part of the neck, and throat are snowy 
white; a rusty-brown line separates it from the 



56 THE ANGLER'S FRIEND. 

black. The legs are somewhat short, but very 
strong ; the claws considerably curved, to pre- 
vent slipping. 

Of most hermit-like and exclusive habits, the 
dipper loves to linger amidst the wildest soli- 
tudes of Nature, frequenting streams that push 
their headlong way through mountain-glens, or 
wind in tortuous course over the heather- clad 
moorland. It may, too, occasionally be seen 
briefly resting on the dripping spokes of the 
wheel when the mill stops, its low plaintive 
warble faintly heard above the splash of the 
water. 

Every angler must be familiar with the dip- 
per's song, always a welcome strain not loud, 
but exquisitely sweet and melodious. Except 
during the breeding season, it rarely happens 
that two are seen together ; they pair very early, 
and, before the ice is gone from the streams and 
pools, in the month of February, their nuptial 
choruses (as they fidget about, perched on a 
boulder, dead log, or projecting rock, bobbing 
their heads, or dipping) herald the coming 
spring. In the selection of their nesting-place 
they exhibit great diversity of taste. It may be 
placed in the cleft of a rock, in a ruined wall, 
among a mass of tangled roots, under a bridge, 



A CUEIOUS HABIT. 57 

close to a milldam, but always near running 
water. One I knew of was under a rude bridge 
on Dartmoor, wedged between two granite 
boulders; another by the side of a milldam in 
Cornwall, a third amongst the timbers of an old 
salmon-trap. 

The dippers are most restless and active in 
their habits : ever flitting from spot to spot, 
always on the move, diving into the stream, out 
again steadfast in nothing but continual change. 
The most singular trait in their versatile cha- 
racter is a power they possess, enabling them not 
only to remain for a long time under water, but 
walk about on the pebbles or gravel at the 
bottom of streams or pools, in search of larva? 
and aquatic insects, just as a man in a diving- 
dress seeks for lost treasure round the hull of a 
sunken ship. 

The late and ever-to-be-lamented naturalist, 
Mr. Waterton, thus commented on this most 
curious habit: 

' This is the bird whose supposed subaquatic 
pranks have set the laws of gravity at defiance, 
by breaking through the general mandate, which 
has ordained that things lighter than water shall 
rise towards its surface, and that things that are 
heavier shall sink beneath it. If the water-ouzel, 



58 THE DIPPER LIBELLED. 

which is specifically lighter than water, can ma- 
nage, by some inherent power, to walk on the 
ground at the bottom of a rivulet, then there is 
great reason to hope that we, who are heavier 
than air, may any day rise up into it, unassisted 
by artificial apparatus, such as wings, gas, steam, 
or broom-staff.' 

Although the feet are strictly those of a 
percher, still the dipper can swim like a duck, 
and as I have often seen a diver spread its 
wings, and literally fly when under water ; so this 
bird, in order to escape, if suddenly alarmed, 
frequently goes a long distance down-stream, 
using its wings beneath the water, much in the 
same manner as it would if flying through the 
air. 

The poor little dipper has many terrible and 
implacable enemies; they saddle him with crimes 
and offences against the fisheries that he does 
not deserve, brand him as a poacher, offer re- 
wards for his head, and ruthlessly take his life. 
Farmers, gardeners, gamekeepers, and managers 
of fisheries, actuated, I doubt not, by the 
purest motives for good, are nevertheless too 
prone to nail their best friends to the barn-door. 
Destroy the feathered police, and hosts of 
insect marauders, that laugh at guns, traps, 
poison, or rewards, will most surely mow down 



DOES NOT CARE FOE EGGS. 59 

your fields and forests, and play havoc with your 
fisheries into the bargain. 

Believe me, it is not with any felonious intent 
that the dipper visits the spawning-beds. He 
would not give a chirp to breakfast on the 
daintiest fish-eggs that speckled trout or silver 
salmon ever laid. Fat larvas, plump savoury 
water-beetles, and delicate young freshwater 
molluscs, are his delight ; and he knows well 
the weakness such robbers have for new-laid 
eggs, and, like a sensible bird, goes where the 
eggs are, to find them an obedience to instinct 
that often costs him his life. 

I have opened the stomachs of dozens of dip- 
pers, when collecting for the purpose of Natural 
History (not only in this country, but in the 
United States, British Columbia, Texas, and 
Oregon, where all the streams are alive with 
salmon and trout), and never in a single instance 
did I discover other than the remains of insects 
and freshwater shells. 

A Highland clan, a weed, and the ouzel are 
severally classed, in a quaint old distich (quoted 
in the ' Dictionary of Animated Nature'), as the 
direst enemies of the Moray. Thus it runs : 

The Gordon, the guile,* and the water craw 
Are the very worst ills th e Moray ever saw. 

* Guile, a weed destructive to corn-lands. 



60 THE AMERICAN DIPPER. 

I have thus referred to the English dipper to 
introduce its very near relation, inhabiting the 
far North-west. It, too, eschews all sociable com- 
munion, disdaining the slightest approach to a 
gregarious life except when mated, choosing in- 
variably wild mountain-streams, where, amidst 
the roar of cascades, whirling eddies, and swift 
torrents, it passes its lonely life. 

The American dipper (Hydrobata Mexicana) 
ranges from the coast to the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains. I have killed it at an altitude of 
seven thousand feet above the sea-level. In size 
it very nearly resembles the European bird, but 
differs greatly in colour; being of a uniform 
plumbeous grey, the only markings a minute 
spot above the anterior corner of the eye. 

I once found the nest of the American dipper 
built amongst the roots of a large cedar-tree that 
had floated down the stream and got jammed 
against the niilldam of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's old grist-mill, at Fort Colville, on a tribu- 
tary to the Upper Columbia river. The water, 
rushing over a jutting ledge of rocks, formed a 
small cascade, that fell like a veil of water before 
the dipper's nest; and it was most curious to see 
the birds dash through the waterfall, rather than 
go in at the sides, and in that way get behind it. 



THE MINER'S CRADLE. 6i 

For hours I have sat and watched the busy pair, 
passing in and out through the fall, with as much 
apparent ease as an equestrian performer jumps 
through a hoop covered with tissue-paper. The 
nest was ingeniously constructed, to prevent the 
spray from wetting the interior, the moss being 
so worked over the entrance as to form an ad- 
mirable verandah. 

Mr. George Gibbs ('Natural History, Washing- 
ton Territory,') speaks of two he noticed whilst 
gold -washing on the Salmon river : ' As I sat at 
my cradle on the bank, a pair of dippers, which I 
suppose had their nest hard by, or perhaps, as it 
was July or August, had already hatched their 
brood, used to play in the water near me, some- 
times alighting at the head of a rapid, allowing 
themselves to be swept under, and then rising 
below. They dive with great celerity, and at 
times beat the water with their wings, throwing 
the spray over themselves. Their whistle was 
sweet and rather sad, but they seemed very 
happy and busy fellows notwithstanding, and in 
nowise afraid of the harsh rattle of the " miner's 
cradle.'" 



62 



CHAPTER IY. 

NATURE OF COUNTRY FOLLOWING THE 49TH PARALLEL FROM THE 
GULF OF GEORGIA TO THE SILMILKAMEEN GIANT TREES SU- 

MASS PRAIRIE AND LAKE NORTHERN SWIFT WHITE-BELLIED 

SWALLOW THE TELLOW-BIRD BARKING CROW NORTH-WEST- 
ERN FISH CROW HUDSON'S BAT MAGPIE STELLER'S JAY 

COUNTRY EAST OF THE CASCADES THE OSOYOOS LAKES NEW 
MUSK-RAT FIBER OSOYOOSENSIS (LORD) NEW SPONGILLA, 
SPONGILLA LORDII (BOWERBANK). 

FOLLOWING the course of the 49th parallel from 
the Gulf of Georgia, to our astronomical station 
at Ashtnolow,* near the Silmilkameen Valley, is 
an unbroken forest with a thick and tangled 
growth of underbrush, in which there is little or 
no grass, or food of any kind for pack-animals ; 
a deficiency we were compelled to supply by 
providing grain. Here and there so-called ' wet 
prairies ' are met with, even at an altitude of 
2,000 feet above the sea-level ; but these marshy 
oases yield only the scantiest forage, being covered 

* Previously alluded to, Vol. I. 



DEVIL'S WALKING-STICK. 63 

with Equisitacece, and rank sour sedge-grass. 
The characteristic trees attaining to any mag- 
nitude on the western slope of the Cascades 
are the Douglas Spruce (Abies Douglassii}* 
Menzies Spruce (A. Menziesii), Hemlock Spruce 
(A. Mertensiana], Pinus contorta, and the useful 
so-called 'Cedar' (Thuja gig antea). Between the 
open bits of prairie are graceful groups of the 
large-leaved Maple (Acer macropliyllum}, Vine 
JMaple (A. circinatum), together with the waving 
Dogwood (Cornus nuttalii), and brilliant red and 
green Alders (Alnus rubra and A. viridis} ; whilst 
the river-banks and loamy valleys are shaded by 
clumps and rows of massive poplars (Populus 
balsamifera), under the larger forest-growths, 
Mahonia, Spireus, Ribes, Vacciniums, Gaultheria, 
and that most prickly and unpleasant plant named 
the ' Devil's Walking-stick' (Panax horridus), 
mingle their leaves and branches into an im- 
penetrable tangle. 

The first twenty miles of the Boundary-line 
takes nearly a parallel course with the Eraser 

* Through patches of these gigantic firs, near the Sumass 
prairie, the axe-men had to cut the Boundary-line. The 
trees grew thickly together, and many exceeded 30 feet in 
circumference, and measured from 200 to 250 feet when 
stretched on the ground by the brawny choppers. 



64 NOETHEEN SWIFTS. 

river, at an average distance from it of nine miles. 
This part of it is quite or very nearly a dead level, 
and very little above the sea, densely timbered, 
and terminating at the spurs of the Cascade 
Mountains. Here the Sumass prairie and its lake, 
so often referred to, are situated. The lake is 
ten miles long, and about four-and-a-half wide. 
I have already explained how the prairie is 
flooded, and that in June the water again sub- 
sides ; after this the growth of the various grasses 
and sedges (Cyperacece) is rapid beyond any- 
thing I have ever witnessed elsewhere. In two 
months the grass attains a height of four and 
seven feet. As the water disappears, swarms of 
insects accumulate, as if by magic ; birds of 
various species arrive to devour them, build 
their nests, and rear their young. 

Amongst the earliest of these visitors I noticed 
the Northern Swift (Nephocaetes Niger, Baird). 
It was a foggy day early in June, and, the insects 
being low, the birds were hovering close to the 
ground. I shot four. The next day I searched in 
vain, but never saw the birds again until the fall 
of the year, when they a second time made their 
appearance in large numbers birds of the year 
as well as old ones. From their habit of flying at 
a great height, it is extremely difficult to obtain 



WHITE-BELLIED SWALLOW. 65 

specimens. I believe I again saw this swift at 
Fort Colville. 

In June I observed a very large number of 
swifts in company with about an equal num- 
ber of goatsuckers ( Chordeiles popetue) ; they 
were hovering at a great altitude. After wait- 
ing a very long time, I succeeded in obtain- 
ing one goatsucker. The swifts never came 
within shot ; neither did I ever after see them. 
On opening the goatsucker, its stomach was 
perfectly gorged with winged ants. I have no 
doubt this was the attraction which delayed the 
swifts on their northern route; and from the 
fact of their disappearing here, as they did at 
Sumass, I imagine they go far north to nest; 
had they bred anywhere along the Boundary- 
line, I am sure I must have discovered them. 

White-bellied Swallows (Hirundo bicolor} are 
always in great force, and make their nests of 
ducks' feathers, in holes either bored by them- 
selves, or the work of woodpeckers, in the totter- 
ing old willows that grow round the oozy margin 
of the lake. Flycatchers, sedgebirds, and a 
host of other summer migrants, specified in the 
Appendix, take up their respective hunting- 
grounds, and commence domestic duties. 

One of the most conspicuous of the smaller 

VOL. II. F 



66 THE YELLOW-BIRD. 

finches is the Yellow-bird (Chrysomitris tristis, 
Bon). This tiny finch robed in golden -yellow, 
delicately shaded and streaked with rich brown, 
a velvet black cap on its head, and just enough 
white as a fringe to light up the dark tail and 
wing-feathers may be ranked as the most 
exquisitely-plumaged of North-western birds. 
One could almost imagine, as it silently climbs 
amidst the green foliage of the pines, that it was 
an orchid-blossom blown from the tropics into 
colder regions, rather than a bird. 

As a singer the 'yellow-bird' has little to boast 
of as an architect it is deserving the highest 
credit. The nest is a perfect work of art, most 
delicately woven, in shape symmetrically round, 
and skilfully lashed with real ropes of fibre to 
the forked branches chosen as the building-site. 

Fine linty materials gathered from different 
plants, thistledown, spiders' webs, and silk pil- 
laged from insect cocoons, make up the walls ; 
the inside, lined with feathers, hair, and soft 
fibres, is a bed fit for a fairy-queen to sleep in. 
Five eggs are usually laid in June or early in 
July, soon after the birds make their appearance. 
They are distributed plentifully throughout Bri- 
tish Columbia, and are sometimes seen on Van- 
couver Island, but were more abundant east 
than west of the Cascades. 



BARKING CROWS. 67 

As a contrast to this and other gay-looking 
birds, hosts of crows take up building-lots in the 
thick thorn-bushes and lofty pine-trees. The 
latter position is chosen by the Barking Crow 
(Corvus americanus). 

If birds are gifted with ventriloquial powers, 
I should say the Barking Crow was at the top of 
the profession. Wandering through the forest 
encircling the prairie, one's ears are dinned by 
the extraordinary sounds made by these crows. 
Sometimes it seems as if these hidden polypho- 
nists were making all sorts of disagreeable fun of 
you, and chuckling hoarsely at their own jokes ; 
then one goes in for a ' bit of a song,' and others 
readily taking it up, they manage between them 
to raise, as a refrain, a combination of discords 
compared to which the parrots' screams in the 
Zoological Gardens is whispered melody. They 
shriek, laugh, yell, shout, whistle, scream, and 
bark driving one to wish all the crows in British 
Columbia were consigned to the depths of Hades. 
If listening eagerly for the note of a bird you are 
most wishful to discover, a Barking Crow is pretty 
sure to perch close over your head and begin its 
unearthly noises ; or if enjoying the notes of a 
forest minstrel, its songs perhaps quite new to 
the ear, in comes a crow with its husky gurgling 

r 2 



68 BUILDS AN OPEN NEST. 

chorus, and spoils the melody. If reposing on the 
soft warm sandy beach in dreamy reveries, listen- 
ing to the lip-lap of the ripple, and thoroughly 
enjoying the quietude of surrounding nature, a 
flock of roystering crows are sure to alight on the 
rocks close by, and do their best to display their 
vocal capabilities. It surely must have been one 
of the British- Columbian crows that quaint old 
JEsop knew ! 

They also go farther inland to breed, building 
their nests of sticks in low bushes, often not 
four feet from the ground, where there are no 
tall trees. I saw one little stream, east of the 
Cascades, where the low alder-bushes growing 
along its banks were quite as thickly filled 
with the nests of the Barking Crow as the trees 
in an English rookery are with rooks' nests. 
I could look into some of them, and into all 
readily put my hand without climbing; the 
sticks are neatly crossed and piled together, 
and the interior lined with grass stalks, hair, 
bits of lichen, and dry leaves ; the nests are open 
at the top, and five was the greatest number of 
eggs I saw in a nest. The Barking Crow is 
found in every part of British Columbia or Van- 
couver Island, and the lesser islands in the Gulf 
of Georgia ; simply changing their quarters from 



NORTH-WESTERN FISH CROWS. 69 

the forests to the seacoasts during the winter 
months, when they live entirely on molluscs, 
crustaceans, dead fish, or anything else procur- 
able from Neptune's realms. 

A near relative arrives at the same time, and 
takes up its quarters in the thick scrubby white 
thorns the North-western Fish Crow (Corvus 
caurinus, Baird). This much smaller crow Dr. 
Baird has described in his valuable book on 
North American Birds (page 569). But he says, 
in finishing his specific descriptions, ' Indeed, it 
is almost a question whether it is more than a 
dwarfed race of the other species.' 

I have not the slightest doubt that it is a dis- 
tinct species, although so very like the Barking 
Crow in all its essential features, as far as colour, 
form of bill, scaling of tarsi, and other de- 
tails are concerned. The much smaller size, 
difference in voice, and habit of constructing a 
domed nest lined with mud, are constant cha- 
racters of sufficient value to justify Dr. Baird's 
specific difference. These small crows are prin- 
cipally found on the seacoast, retiring to the 
trees to sleep and caw during high-tide ; follow- 
ing out its ebb, and receding before its flood, 
they feast on any marine provender they may be 
lucky enough to find. They never make such a 



70 BUILDS A DOMED NEST. 

discordant babel of sounds as their friends and 
companions the barkers, but caw much as do 
our jackdaws. 

The seacoast is abandoned when the breeding- 
time arrives, early in May, when they resort in 
pairs to the interior; selecting a patch of open 
prairie, where there are streams and lakes, and 
the wild crab-apple and white-thorn grows, in 
which they build nests precisely like that of the 
magpie, arched over the top with sticks. The 
bird enters by a hole on one side, but leaves by 
an exit- hole on the opposite. The inside is plas- 
tered with mud ; a few grass-stalks strewn loosely 
on the bottom keep the eggs from rolling. This 
is so marked a difference to the Barking Crow's 
nesting, as in itself to be a specific distinction. 
The eggs are lighter in the blotching, and much 
smaller. I examined great numbers of nests at 
this prairie, and on the Columbia, but invariably 
found the same habit of doming prevailed. After 
nesting, they return with the young to the sea- 
coasts, and remain in large flocks, often asso- 
ciated with the Barking Crows, until nesting- 
time comes again. During their sojourn inland, 
their food consists principally of small reptiles, 
freshwater molluscs, or grubs; and I have seen 
them catch butterflies flying near their nests, 



MAGPIES. 71 

which are placed low down, but in the centre of 
a very thick prickly bush a stronghold rigidly 
guarded against all-comers. Not even a small 
bird dare perch on that sacred bush ; and if hawk 
or weasel venture to poach for eggs or young 
birds, husband and wife dash fearlessly at the 
thief, and ring such changes on its head or body 
with their powerful beaks, that victory generally 
lies on the side of the crows. Seven is the 
greatest number of eggs I ever found in a nest, 
five and six being the average. I saw it north at 
the extreme end of Vancouver Island, but do not 
imagine that to be its limit. Its southern range 
(I only speak from personal observation) was 
Cape Flattery; whether it extends along the 
coasts of Oregon and south of California, I do 
not know. 

Very often magpies (Pica Hudsonlca] build 
in the bushes, as close as safety permits them to 
venture near the belligerent Fish Crows. These 
thievish murderers are everywhere, from Vancou- 
ver Island to the Rocky Mountains. They so very 
nearly resemble our British bird, that one would 
know no difference save by a careful comparison ; 
seeing them in freedom, they appear to be iden- 
tical. I call them murderers, because I have seen 
them kill mules : and worse than that, pick the 



72 PACKERS' PESTS. 

eyes out of a living animal when, wounded and 
helpless, it lay down to die; and pounce on 
maimed birds, break in their skulls, and delibe- 
rately devour their brains whilst the muscles still 
quivered with life. 

To the packer the magpies are dire enemies. 
If a pack-mule or horse has a gall, and hap- 
pens to be turned out to graze with the wound 
uncovered, down come the magpies on its back; 
clinging with their sharp claws, reckless of 
every effort to displace them, they peck away 
at the wound ; the tortured beast rolls madly, 
and for a short time the scoundrels are obliged 
to let go, but only to swoop down again the 
instant a chance offers. This repeated agony 
soon kills an animal, unless the packers rescue it. 

We had frightful trouble with magpies at our 
winter mule-camp, near Colville. They gradu- 
ally accumulated, to eat the offal and what there 
was besides, until they were in hundreds, and be- 
came perfectly unbearable. Shooting at them was 
only wasting valuable ammunition. The packers 
were driven almost into a state of revolt. We 
had an old maimed suffering mule which was to 
be killed, so the packers gave it a ball containing 
a large dose of strychnine : death was imme- 
diate, and the carcase, ere ten minutes had 



A TERRIBLE RETRIBUTION. 73 

elapsed, was covered with magpies working at 
the eyes, lips, sores, and soft skin inside the 
thighs. It was the most singular spectacle I ever 
witnessed. One after the other the birds rolled 
from off the dead mule, and as they fell and 
died, others greedily took their vacant places ; 
and so this terrible slaughter went on, until the 
heaps of dead magpies nearly buried the body ol 
the mule. Two foxes, one cayote, several Indian 
dogs, and a large wolf, on the day following the 
mule's demise, lay dead by the side of the poi- 
soned birds. It was a terrible revenge how far 

o 

justifiable is a matter of opinion. The packers, 
of course, were in wild glee at the entire success 
of the scheme. 

The magpie builds much the same kind of nest 
as our British species, lays seven or eight eggs, 
and commences nesting in March, long before the 
snow begins to thaw. Numbers winter in the 
interior, whilst others resort to the seacoast, and 
feed on marine provender. They grow so tame 
and impudent in winter, that I have often given 
them food from my hand, without their showing 
any evidence of fear. 

Steller's Jay ( Cyanura stitteri) makes its pre- 
sence known by the continual utterance of a dis- 
cordant scream ; hopping perpetually from bough 



74 STELLER'S JAY. 



to bough, then darting down to nip an insect, 
performing short erratic flights, and jerking its 
crest of bright feathers up and down, its noisy 
song seems everywhere. The Blue Jay appears 
the embodiment of restlessness, and by sheer 
impudence attracts attention from even the lone 
hunter. Fond of frequenting the haunts of man, 
jays are always plentiful near Indian lodges or 
white men's shanties. By no means epicurean 
in tastes, they readily devour anything seeds, 
salmon, grasshoppers, or venison. The nest, 
artfully concealed amidst the thick foliage of a 
young pine-tree, is composed of moss, small 
twigs, lichen, and fir-fronds, and lined with deer- 
hair. Seven is about the average number of eggs 
laid. 

On reaching the eastern slope of the Cascades, 
grass becomes abundant, and dry fodder is un- 
necessary. Trending eastward to cross the Simil- 
kameen Valley, and thence passing the Osoyoos 
lakes, grass is all the way abundant, and the 
vegetation evidences a very much drier climate ; 
instead of dense impenetrable forest, the trees 
are sparsely scattered. Leguminous plants, 
valerian and others, give a marked character to 
the general herbage. On reaching the Na-hoil- 
a-pit-ka river, which bends in a southerly course 



THE OSOYOOS LAKES. 



to join the Columbia, a short distance above the 
Kettle Falls, mountains again commence; and 
from this point to the summit of the Kocky 
Mountains, the Boundary Line crosses a succes- 
sion of mountain ranges, with narrow valleys 
(often only rocky ravines) between them. The 
illustration, taken from a photograph of one of our 
camps amidst this chaos of rocks and trees, shows 
how arduous the task of marking and cutting 
the line through it really was. 

I must linger a short time at the Osoyoos lakes. 
This magnificent piece of water may be defined 
as one large lake, or three smaller ones, with 
equal correctness ; as a narrowing-in, at parti- 
cular points, gives the appearance of an actual 
division into separate lakes. The Boundary 
Line runs through its centre, so that one half 
the lake belongs to England (its northern half), 
the southern to the United States. The shore 
is sandy, like a seabeach, and, strewn thickly 
with freshwater shells along the ripple line, has 
quite a tidal aspect. On either side, a sandy 
treeless waste stretches away to the base of the 
hills, and so carpeted with cacti which grow in 
small knobs, covered with spines, like vegetable 
porcupines that walking on it, without being 
shod with the very thickest boots, is to endure 



76 WATER BIRDS' EDEN. 

indescribable torture ; the prickles are so sharp 
and hard, that they slip through ordinary leather 
like cobblers' awls. We had to tie up our dogs 
and horses, for the latter, getting the prickly 
knobs into their heels, kicked and plunged 
viciously until exhausted. The dogs got them 
fast to their feet, and, impatiently seizing the 
vegetable pests, only aggravated the mischief by 
transferring them to the tongue and cheeks. I 
have no hesitation in saying, a dog must inevi- 
tably die from starvation if he ventured to cross 
this waste alone ; the cacti once in his mouth, un- 
aided he could never free himself. A low ' di- 
vide' separates this valley from the Similkameen, 
the water from the lakes eventually finding its 
way into the Columbia river. If there is an Eden 
for water-birds, the Osoyoos lakes must surely 
be that favoured spot. At the upper end, a per- 
fect forest of tall rushes, six feet in height, 
afford the ducks, grebes, bitterns, and a variety 
of waders, admirable breeding haunts safe alike 
from the prying eyes of birds that prey on their 
kindred, and savages that indiscriminately eat 
anything. 

The water, alive with fish at all times, is in 
the summer crowded with salmon. In the pools 
on one side of the lake, I obtained a new 



A NEW MUSK RAT. 77 

species of musk-rat, which I have named Fiber 
osoyoosensis. 

The Musk Rat, which I believe is the well- 
known Fiber zibethicus of Cuvier, makes its holes 
in the clayey banks of streams and pools where 
the water runs slowly. The entrance is always 
below the surface, the hole dug up in a slanting 
direction above the water-level. A stage or flat 
place is cleared, which constitutes the dining-, 
drawing-, and bed-room ; leading to the entrance 
of this mansion are a number of open cuttings, 
running in all directions, dug in the mud at the 
bottom of the water. When foraging about, as the 
musk rat usually does about twilight, if alarmed, 
it dives at once into one of these cuttings, and, 
rushing rapidly through, stirs up the mud, thus 
fouling the water, and completely and effectually 
concealing itself. 

The other Musk Rat, which I call Fiber oso- 
yoosensis, differs in size, colour, and structure, 
but particularly in habits, from the preceding. 
This fellow chooses as his haunt a clear pond 
or lake, and in water from three to four feet deep 
constructs a house of bulrushes, in form conical, 
built up from the bottom how I am at a loss to 
imagine the roof cleverly arched over into a 
domed shape, and raised about a foot above the 



78 BUILDERS AND MINERS. 

water. Up in this dome, skilfully constructed, 
is his suite of apartments, the entrance to which 
is far below the surface of the water. His habits 
very nearly approximate those of the beaver : he 
swims about boldly in the daytime, but dives 
rapidly on the approach of danger. If a dead or 
badly-wounded duck be left on the pool, it is 
at once seized on, towed into the house, and 
devoured. 

I am quite satisfied, from careful observation, 
that the Musk Rat is a carnivorous beast when- 
ever he has a chance; and the straight, sharp- 
cutting, strong incisor-teeth are well adapted for 
the indulgence of cannibal propensities. 

If there were no rushes growing where this 
mud-rover lived, it might be assumed that he 
dug a hole into the bank from lack of material 
to build a house; but I have often seen the 
rushes growing abundantly where he has chosen 
his mud hut, offering every facility for architec- 
tural pursuits, had he so willed. On the other 
hand, had the rush-builder been precluded from 
finding a mud-bank in which to construct his 
mansion, it might have been supposed that he 
had resorted to making a hut with rushes on that 
account. 



NEW SPONGILLA. 79 

FIBER OSOYOOSENSIS. (LORD, up. nov.) 

Sp. char. In total length 3^ inches shorter than Fiber zibethicus 
(Cuv.) ; in general size much smaller. General hue of back jet- 
black ; but, the hair being of two kinds, if viewed from tail to 
head it looks grey the under fur being fine, silky, and light-grey 
in colour ; concealing this on the upper surface are long coarse 
black hairs ; the belly and sides somewhat lighter ; head broad and 
depressed : neck indistinct ; ear small, upper margin rounded ; eye 
small and black ; the feet, legs, and claws are so exactly like those 
of Fiber zibethicus that it would be useless to describe them again ; 
whiskers long, and composed of about an equal number of white 
and black hairs ; incisors nearly straight, on the external surface 
orange-yellow. 

The skull differs from Fiber zibethicus in being much smaller, 
2 inches in length, 1 inch in width, very much shorter from the 
anterior molar to incisors ; nasal bones much more rounded at their 
posterior ends, the superior outline less curved ; postorbital process 
not nearly so much developed ; the cranial portion of the skull in 
its upper outline is much less concave, and smoother ; superior 
outline of occipital bone not so prominent or strong ; incisors 
shorter and much straighter ; molars much smaller, but in general 
outline similar. 

In this lake I obtained a new species of fresh- 
water mollusc, which Dr. Baird, who kindly de- 
scribed it for me, named Succinea Hawkinsii, in 
honour of the Commissioner, Colonel Hawkins. 
It will be found carefully described in the Ap- 
pendix. 

I also observed a spongilla growing round the 
stalks of the rushes, much larger, and more sponge- 
like in character, than any spongilla I had pre- 
viously seen. There was no lack of it in many 
places; the rush-stalks were all covered with it, 



80 SPONGILLA LOEDII. 

from their root-hold to the water-level, a length of 
two feet, and often more. This spongilla Professor 
Bowerbank has kindly described for rne since my 
return. I cannot do better than append the 
Professor's description : 

1 SPONGILLA LORDIL (BOWEKBANK, N. S.) 

* Sponge sessile ; coating surface even, smooth ; oscula simple, 
dispersed. Pores inconspicuous ; dermal membrane pellucid, aspi- 
culous; skeleton specula, acerate. Ovaries congregated on the 
basal membrane, very numerous ; specula entirely spined, fusiform, 
cylindrical, dispersed on the surface. Basal membrane abundantly 
spiculous ; specula dispersed same as those of the ovaries. Colour 
ochreous, yellow to green. Examined in the dried state. 

' The sponge embraces the stems of a large 
species of reed for eight or ten inches of its 
length, and is about six or nine lines in greatest 
thickness. In its general habit, and the struc- 
ture of its skeleton, it closely resembles our J$ri- 
tishFluviatilis; but it differs from that species in 
the mode of disposition and structural peculiari- 
ties of the ovaries, which more closely resemble 
those of our British species S. lacustris, but 
from which it differs in having the specula of 
the ovaries nearly straight, while those of the 
last-named species are usually arcuate. The 
dermal membrane of S. lacustris also abounds in 
entirely- spined tension specula, while that of S. 
Lordii is aspiculous. 



SPONGILLA LORDII. 81 

'This species is interesting, from its close alliance 
in structure to the European type of this genus, 
and from the very slight structural resemblance 
it has to the numerous species of the Amazon 
river ; the principal character by which it is 
connected with the latter series of species being 
the mode of the congregation and disposition 
on its basal membrane of its very numerous 
ovaries. 

' I have dedicated this species to Mr. J. K. Lord, 
as a slight acknowledgment of the good services 
he has done to science by the collection of this 
and numerous other valuable specimens of Na- 
tural History, from the unfrequented regions 
which he has explored.' 



VOL. II. G 



CHAPTER Y. 

REJOIN THE COMMISSION JOURNEY TO WALLA-WALLA AND BACK 

SCENERY OF THE UPPER COLUMBIA OLD FORT WALLA-WALLA 

WALLA- WALLA INDIANS NEW WALLA-WALLA CITY THE 

HORSE-FAIR INDIAN MUSTANGS CURIOUS CUSTOM OF THE 

SIS-KY-OU INDIANS THE AMERICAN GARRISON AN UGLY 

ADVENTURE OVERLAND TRIP TO WALLA- WALLA CEDAR 

SPRING AND THE SHORE-LARKS SAGE COCK, OR COCK OF 
THE PLAINS TOWNSEND'S GROUND-SQUIRREL A DIFFICULT 

MARCH THE PRAIRIE HARE CASTLE AND CHIMNEY ROCKS- 
REACH WALLA-WALLA. 

WE have rejoined the Commission at the Dalles; 
one party has proceeded up the west or right bank 
of the Columbia, there to strike off in a northerly 
direction for Fort Simcoe, in order to reach the 
point at which the Boundary Line had been 
abandoned the previous year ; it being more ex- 
pedient to ascend the Columbia, in order to get 
east of the Cascades, than it was to transport so 
large a party, with mules, across their serried 
heights 

We are to keep on the left bank of the Co- 
lumbia, proceeding first to Walla- walla ; thence, 



WOOD-PILE ON FIRE. 83 

takino* a northerly direction, to cross the Snake 
river, where its tributary, the Peloose, joins it; 
then, passing by the Big Lake, travel due north 
to Fort Colville. It will facilitate description to 
resume my journal :- 

June 5. I start alone for Walla-walla. A 
stage from the Dalles takes me to the Des 

o 

Chutes or ' fall ' river, where I embark in the 

' Colonel Wright,' a small crank steamer propelled 

by an enormous stern-wheel. The Columbia 

river was in full flood, and rushing down with 

terrific force made our progress tediously slow. 

We were well out in the current, when there 

was a hue-and-cry that the wood-pile was on fire ; 

luckily it did no harm the burning logs were 

dragged out and thrown into the water. More 

dismal scenery can hardly be imagined not a 

tree or shrub visible nothing but grass dry as 

hay, and level sandy plains. At Sundown the 

vessel is made fast to some stakes driven into the 

bank, there being nothing else to moor her to. 

June 6. The splash of the stern- wheel and 
creak of machinery awake me; we are again 
struggling against a terrific current, and the wind 
blowing a gale dead ahead. The same monoto- 
nous shrubless waste nothing to interest or 
amuse, save the excitement of twisting and 

G 2 



84 A TEDIOUS VOYAGE. 

struggling through rapids, and watching the 
' deck hands ' take in wood at the different 
' wooding stations.' The boilers are heated with 
wood only, which is hauled by ox-teams from 
the nearest forest or timbered district, often 
many miles: cutting, cording, and hauling the 
wood requisite for the trip from the Des Chutes 
to Walla-walla is a very heavy item. 

We pass the mouth of John Day's river, the 
Umatilla, and several other tributaries. Where 
the rivers joined, small encampments of Indians 
were busy fishing, but we did not go sufficiently 
near to see what fish they were taking. As we 
get farther up-stream, colossal piles of basaltic 
rocks, naked and cinderous, appear to have grown 
from out the sand; quaint are the shapes these 
masses assume, and from resemblances really 
startling are named Chimney-rocks, Castle-rocks, 
Turret-rocks, and so on, as they suggest some well- 
known object to the traveller. The weariest day 
must have an ending; at night we tie up as 
before, only twelve miles below old Fort Walla- 
walla our destination. 

June 7. We are at old Walla-walla, 5.30 
A.M. ; wind blowing a hurricane, and carrying 
along with it sand, and even small pebbles. The 
landing is effected on a kind of floating pier; and 



WALLA-WALLA INDIANS. 85 



whilst the stage-driver is harnessing his mus- 
tangs, I take a peep at the old fort, or rather 
what remains of it, which is a square enclosed by 
adobe (mud) walls loopholed, and once guarded 
by massive gates ; but these are gone, as are the 
houses of the fur-traders that the crumbling old 
walls protected in the early days of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 

The Walla-walla Indians, at the time the 
Hudson's Bay Company established this most 
desolate trading-post, were a wild and powerful 
tribe, very hostile and averse to the Company's 
trading. After several severe fights, in which 
many lives were lost on both sides, the traders 
abandoned the fort during the Sis-ky-ou Avar, in 
the year 1833. Whisky, disease, and forays 
with white men and neighbouring Indian tribes 
has so reduced the once-dreaded Walla-wallas, 
that a few broken-spirited lazy horse-thieves are 
their only representatives to be met with. The 
Walla- walla river joins the Columbia close to 
the steamer-landing. 

I endure the usual amount of stao;e discomfort, 

o ' 

in passing over thirty miles of the most miserable 
forlorn-looking country I ever beheld. We 
reach New Walla- walla city about dusk ; the 
city is one straight street about a quarter of a 



86 NEW WALLA-WALLA CITY. 

mile in length, consisting principally of grog- 
shops (or groceries), tawdry bar-rooms, billiard- 
saloons, a few stores, and ' Corals ' for putting 
horses in. The throng in the streets consists of 
half-naked savages, with their squaws and child- 
ren, gold-miners, settlers, American soldiers, and 
rowdies of all sorts. I learn there are two causes 
to which this extraordinary city owes its exist- 
ence: first, the establishment of an American 
garrison, to protect the settlers in Washington 
Territory from Indian incursions, which garrison 
is about a mile away ; and secondly, the rumours 
of rich gold-placers in the Blue Mountains, a 
little to the southward. 

I met my friend, to whom I had letters of in- 
troduction, and slept at his house, about a mile 
from this den of villany. 

June 8. The news that I was a Govern- 
ment Agent, seeking mules and horses, spread 
like a prairie-fire ; and Walla-walla, as I enter it 
this morning, is a perfect horse-fair. Sis-ky-ous, 
Walla-wallas, Nez-perces, and Indians from 
various smaller tribes, living on the Columbia 
and its tributaries, were dashing wildly up and 
down the street some on bare-backed horses, 
others having a rude kind of saddle: all are 
yelling, whooping, and flourishing their lassos, 



A NOVEL HORSE-FAIR. 87 

like maddened fiends. Hoping to attract my 
attention, they ride much closer than seems quite 
consistent with my personal safety. So I en- 
sconce myself in a 'Coral,' and contemplate the 
fair over the strong railings quite as agreeably 
and very much more safely than outside. 

Half-naked savages, one after another (often 
two or three together), dash up to the rails, and 
lling themselves from off the panting horses ; run 
their hands down the length of the horse's back, 
to show it has no galls or sores ; tickle its flanks 
and creep under its belly, to demonstrate its 
docility ; drag open the lips, to show the teeth ; 
invariably ask four times the sum they intend to 
take ; give a frantic yell on being offered less ; 
spring again upon the horses' backs, to gallop 
furiously about, until, tired of further exhibition, 
and hopeless of exacting a larger sum, they ride 
quietly to the ' Coral,' turn in the horses, and re- 
ceive payment. The detail of all my bargainings 
would afford the reader but little interest ; suffice 
it to say, I made many purchases, and afterwards 
adjourned to the American garrison. 

It is difficult to say when horses were intro- 
duced into the Indian country west of the Rocky 
Mountains, but most probably about the com- 
mencement of this century. They are clearly 



88 A STRANGE CUSTOM AMONGST THE SIS-KY-OUS. 

descended from Spanish stock stout, compact, 
enduring animals, seldom exceeding 15 hands, 
14 J hands being about the average standard 
of height. Spotted horses are very common, 
and much prized by the squaws. 

The Sis-ky-ou Indians have a singular custom . 
of cuttino; off the tails of the horses to a mere 

O 

stump, and cropping the ears, as terrier-dogs are 
trimmed by the ' Fancy.' For what purpose such 
bai'barous treatment is resorted to I could not 
discover, but I imagine it enables them more 
readily to identify their horses in case of theft. 
I purchased a crop-eared tailless horse, for my 
own use, but the poor animal suffered so fear- 
fully from the punctures of musquitos and sand- 
flies, having no tail to whip them off, that I could 
not ride him in fly- time. 

I am most hospitably treated by Colonel 
Wright, the commandant of the American garrison, 
which consists of a number of very neatly-built 
houses, arranged in a square. Four companies, 
consisting of infantry and cavalry, are sometimes 
stationed here. The officers have a capital 
billiard-room, and a small theatre for amateur 
performances. The situation is desolate in the 
extreme nothing visible in any direction but a 
sandy extent of barren treeless country, 



THE STORM. 89 

save a dim dark line bounding the horizon to the 
right, which I am told are mountains, from which 
all the wood used in the garrison is dragged by 
mules and ox-teams. I spend a delightful even- 
ing, and sleep at Captain Dent's. 

June 9. I am again en route for old Walla- 
walla, to catch the steamer. The stage has no 
other passenger. I can see by the black masses 
of cloud, rolling like huge waves one after ano- 
ther, that a storm of no trifling nature is about 
to break over us. It rapidly darkens, and the 
first flash of hVhtnmo- hisses through the stage, 

t ' o o o ' 

followed instantly by a deafening peal of thunder ; 
the wind, as if suddenly let loose, rushes across 
the waste, carrying with it sand enough to bury 
one ; flash follows flash so rapidly, that the dismal 
plain seems permanently lighted; the crashing 
thunder-claps completely overpower all other 
sounds, and the rain begins to pour down in a 
very deluge. 

The storm does not last long; but the driver, 
blinded by the sand, and the glare of the lightning, 
has missed his way, and we are clearly in the 
Walla-walla river. The stage fills rapidly. I 
dash open the door, determined, at least, to 
have a swim for my life ; there is a terrible 
scrambling of the horses, accompanied with a 



90 GOING DOWN STREAM. 

heavy lurch, a cheery 'All right, Cap.!' from 
the driver, which tells me we are again on terra 
firma. We hold a council, and determine to 
unharness the mustangs, and await the daylight. 
It certainly was the most miserable night I ever 
passed; wet, cold, and hungry, my miseries were 
enhanced by the fear of missing the steamer, and 
being detained perhaps a month. 

June 10. It was fortunate we did not attempt 
to proceed ; we are far away from the road, and, as 
I suspected, had made a short voyage in the 
Walla- walla river. Luckily, the banks being low 
and shelving, the horses were enabled to scramble 
out, and tug the stage after them. We saved the 
steamer by the merest chance, and I am again on 
board. Going down the river is a very different 
affair to coming up. We go at such a rate, that 
the wheel at the stern is next to useless ; through 
some of the swifter rapids it is quite like flying ; 
if a rock should be touched, we shall be food 
for the fishes. What occupied us three days to 
accomplish up-stream, we do in six hours down. 
I reached my camp at the Dalles about seven 
o'clock in the evening. 

o 

Three days were occupied in making the neces- 
sary arrangements for departure. 

June 14. We start again for Walla -walla, this 



MUD-CREEK. 91 

time by land. The Commissioner, nineteen men, 
and thirty- two laden mules, complete our party ; 
the others, with some heavy baggage, are gone 
by the steamer, to await our arrival. We cross 
the Fall-River on a very creditable wooden 
bridge, for which the modest sum of half a dollar, 
(two shillings) was demanded for each animal, 
packed or ridden. (This bridge, soon after, was 
completely swept away by a heavy flood.) 
Thirty-four bullocks, driven by two mounted 
herders, formed a kind of rearguard. 

We made a twenty-mile march, and camped at 
Mud Creek a dismal place, with little or no 
wood, and very bad water. 

When tents are used, getting away in the 
morning is always a tedious process; we start 
about seven o'clock. For some distance we wind 
through a series of rounded hills, covered thickly 
with 'bunch-grass,' a most nutritious herbage; the 
grass grows in tufts hence the name. Not a 
shrub to be seen neither bird nor beast. De- 
scend a basaltic gorge, like an immense canal cut 
in the solid rock, and come suddenly on a swift 
stream, named John Day's river ; this we ferried 
in a kind of scow, hauled from side to side by a 
rope. Again we had to pay two shillings a head 
for mules and horses ; the bullocks swam it. 



92 THIRSTY SHORE-LARKS. 

June 15. Made a short march, and camped 
early, near some stunted juniper-trees, where a 
small stream of water literally squirted out from 
the side of a steep bank ; it is the only water within 
a long distance, and the place bears the name of 
Cedar Springs, as the junipers are called cedars 
by the traders. 

It was most interesting to watch the Shore 
Larks (Eremopliila cornuta). As evening ap- 
proached, they actually came boldly in amongst 
the men and mules, intense thirst overcoming 
all sense of fear. These handsome little birds 
are very plentiful throughout British Columbia. 
They nest very early on these sandy plains, 
even before the snow leaves the ground. I saw 
young birds early in May. Near this spring 
I saw the Cock of the Plains, or Sage Cock 
( Centrocercus urophasianus}. 

I scarcely think this handsome grouse can be 
strictly included amongst British- Columbian 
birds, although its northern range is very near 
the Boundary Line on the right bank of the Co- 
lumbia river ; still, I only know of its existence 
west of the Rocky Mountains, in Washington 
and Oregon Territories. I met with it before, on 
the sandy plains near the head-waters of the 
Des Chutes river, and know of its being found 



THE SAGE-COCK. 93 

on the right and left banks of the Columbia, 
to the Spokan river on the one side, and the 
Yakima on the other. 

These grouse live entirely on the open sandy 
plains, their principal food being the wild-sage 
(Artemisia), which imparts such a rank un- 
pleasant flavour to the flesh, that one might 
almost as well chew the bitter bush as eat 
any part of a sage-cock. It is almost impossible 
to obtain the cocks in full nuptial costume, 
when their necks are fringed with the most deli- 
cate pinnated feathers. The meeting of two 
cocks is sure to result in a fight, during which 
the greater part of these ornamental feathers are 
usually torn out. Unless the birds are killed prior 
to a hostile encounter their plumage is never 
perfect, as they only have these fine neck and 
back-plumes at mating-time. 

It is impossible for anyone to avoid being at 
once impressed with the extraordinary adapta- 
tion of the sage-cock's colour to the localities 
in which it lives ; the mottlings of brown, 
black, yellow, and white, are so exactly like the 
lichens covering the rocks, the stalks of the 
wild-sage, and the dried leaves, bunch-grass, 
and dead twigs scattered over the sandy wastes, 
that it is impossible to make them out to be 



96 THE SAGE-HARE. 

must be the droppings of a large flock of sheep 
covering the ground thickly, just as though the 
animals had been folded. I had barely time to 
think what animal could be so abundant, when 
the dogs, tired as they were, started two or 
three large hares from under the wild-sage 
bushes. We saw numbers of them, and shot 
several ; but the flesh tasted so strongly of the 
wild-sage, on which these hares mainly sub- 
sist, that eating it was an impossibility. The 
Prairie Hare (Lepus campestris) appears entirely 
confined to these sandy desert-lands, being 
replaced by the Red Hare (L. Washingtonii) in 
the timbered districts. 

The fur of the Prairie Hare is long and silky, 
and exactly the colour of the sand and dead leaves 
under the bushes w r here they make their ' forms ;' 
unless they move, it is impossible to distinguish 
them, although looking down on their backs. 
The ears are quite a fifth longer than the head. 
In summer, the colour of the back, sides, throat, 
and limbs is grey, varied with yellow and brown 
markings ; tail quite white, above and below ; ears 
yelloAV on the outside, but tipped with black, 
thinly covered inside with long white hairs ; belly 
quite white. In winter the hairs change to a 
pure white ; the colouring-matter is absorbed, and 



A SAD DISAPPOINTMENT. 97 

the animal adapted to the snowy garb of winter, 
without the trouble of changing its coat. 

We ascend a short hill, and from its summit 
gaze on the long-desired water ; but, misery of 
miseries ! in the pool (only a very small one) are 
six Indian horses, pawing and splashing, whilst 
their riders, squatting close by, are indulging in 
a friendly pipe. This, in itself, was enough to ag- 
gravate any thirst-famished man, but, worse than 
all, our dogs, the instant they caught sight of the 
water, rushed off, in defiance of shouts and threats, 
and helter-skelter dashed into the pond. Not con- 
tent to stand and lap, like well-conducted dogs, 
they rolled in the water, and so frightened the 
horses, that together they managed so to stir up 
the bottom, that drinking was impossible, unless 
liquid mud were swallowed. There is nothing 
to be done but to dip some water into - a pail, 
and wait for the thickest of it to settle. 

This is certainly the most dismal camping- 
place I ever beheld. The Indians at the pool 
are Umatillas, and live near the junction of the 
Umatilla and Columbia rivers a small peaceful 
tribe, living principally on fish, sage-cocks, and 
prairie-hares. 

My journal records nothing of interest until 

June 21 We pass the masses of rock I had 

VOL. II. II 



98 CASTLE AND CHIMNEY ROCKS. 

previously seen from the deck of the steamer, 
Castle Rock and Chimney Rock black columnar 
pyramids, which appear to have dropped down 
upon the sandy plains, rather than to have been 
upheaved from below bare and naked, without 
even a coloured lichen to break their sombre 
cinderous uniformity. These basaltic mountains 
serve but to intensify the desolation of this inter- 
minable wilderness. Our course is now along 
the bank of the Columbia, that rushes on, muddy 
and turbulent, to reach the Walla-walla, which 
we follow up for about two miles, to meet our 
party, that had been sent by steamer : find them 
comfortably encamped, and enjoy a few days' 
rest, after our sandy, frying, dismal trip. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE GREAT PLAIN OF THE COLUMBIA POND TURTLES AND THEIR 

NESTS THE SAGE RABBIT FIND CURIOUS STONEIMPLEMENTS 

A TRADE IN FLINTS AND MARINE PRODUCTIONS AT SOME REMOTE 
PERIOD, AND A SKULL(viDE ILLUSTRATION) UNALTERED BY PRESSURE 

LEAVE WALLA- WALLA CROSS THE SNAKE RIVER PELOUSE 

INDIANS AND THEIR HORSES FALLS OF THE LOWER PELOUSE A 

DISAGREEABLE INTRUDER PLEASANT TO SEE TREES AGAIN SAND- 
FLIES BREEZE-FLIES CLARK'S CROW THE SPOKAN RIVER 

WALKER'S PRAIRIE PARRY'S GROUND-SQUIRREL THE WAY THE 
THREE SPECIES OF GROUND-SQUIRRELS REPLACE EACH OTHER ON 
THE PLAIN PARKMAN'S WREN AND ITS NEST NUTHATCHES THE 
TITS DEAD MAN'S PRAIRIE ARRIVE AT FORT COLVILLE. 

THE great plain of the Columbia over which we 
are travelling, though its name gives the impres- 
sion of a uniformly level surface, has, nevertheless, 
its mountains and valleys. Its northern boundary 
is an irregular line between the parallels of 48 
and 49; southward it merges into and is con- 
tinuous with the central plains of Oregon, and 
thence extends to Salt Lake City, in Utah Terri- 
tory. 

The vegetation indicates a much drier climate 
than that of the western side of the Cascades. 

H 2 



100 WESTERN POND TURTLE. 

Dr. Lyall says,* in reference to this plain : ' A 
good many plants found in this region are 
strictly local in their distribution. Excepting 
by the banks of lakes or streams, there are no 
trees; and some of the orders, such as Ranun- 
culacece, Caryophyllacece, Portulacacece, Rosacece, 
Crassulacece, Saxifragacece, Vacciniacece, Orchi- 
dacece, Liliacece, &c., which species are so 
plentiful in the first region, have comparatively 
few representatives ; whilst others, such as Legu- 
minosce, Onagracece, Polemoniacece, &c., are more 
common in this district, and give a character to 
the vegetation.' 

Difference of elevation in the plain regions 
have each their peculiarities. The spurs of the 
Cascades are usually too dry for even good grazing- 
ground their summits rocky, barren, and sparsely 
timbered. A strip of land immediately adjoining 
the Columbia, where it receives the waters of the 
Spokan, offers, however, good graz ing-grounds 
for the Indian horses. 

In the grass surrounding our camp are quan- 
tities of the Western Pond Turtle (Actinemys 
marmorata}, large and small tiny little fel- 
lows not bister than a horse-bean, and stout 

oo 

* ' Journal Linncean Society,' 1863, ' Botany of North- 
west America.' 



TURTLE EGGS. 101 

old males and females. They seem to have left the 
water all at the same time ; the females are busy 
depositing their eggs in hollow places under the 
wild-sage bushes, or amiclsttufts of grass ; but why 
the little ones come on land as well, puzzles me. 
It is next to impossible to catch them when in 
the water ; their habit is to come out on the edge 
of the pond or stream, or what they like better is 
to scramble up on a floating log, and enjoy the 
sunshine as it drifts about. The slightest noise 
at once sends them, hurry-scurry, to the bottom. 
Now I can pick them up as easily as I could 
hedge-snails in Devonshire; they do not even 
attempt to get out of the way. 

The eggs are white, and devoid of shelly 
covering, the contents being enclosed in a tough 
membrane. I discovered about fifteen in each 
nest, deposited in a heap, very similar to the way 
our British garden-snail deposits its eggs in holes 
in the earth. The sun hatches them, and I much 
regret that I could not ascertain how long a time 

o o 

the eggs take to hatch by the sun's heat ; we had to 
proceed on our journey, so I was obliged, though 
reluctantly, to abandon this interesting investiga- 
tion. The markings on the carapace are ex- 
ceedingly pretty. The general colour is olive, 
with darker mottlings, the under-portion (or 



102 THE SAGE EABBIT. 

'plastron') being a brilliant yellow. I believe this 
is the only species of freshwater turtle found in 
the waters of British Columbia ; its adult size is 
about nine inches in length, and eight in width. 

In ferreting out the turtle's eggs, I constantly 
disturbed the beautiful little Sage Rabbit ; scarcely 
ten inches in length, it looks more like a rat than 
a rabbit, when scudding nimbly away amidst 
the grass. The fur is light-grey, and very like 
the sand and dry leaves amidst which it delights 
to sit. The Wasco Indians call it Za-lak. 

I procured specimens of this rabbit at the Dalles, 
Cow Creek, and Colville; its favourite haunts 
are the narrow belts of scrub that fringe the 
banks of streams, hiding in crevices or among the 
debris at the base of a cliff, or, failing these places 
of concealment, makes burrows in the sandbanks ; 
it breeds early. I obtained a doe in March, heavy 
with young, and am disposed to think this rabbit 
is only found east of the Cascades. 

I found, in rambling over the sandy plain near 
old Fort Walla-walla, numbers of flint imple- 
ments, together with heaps of fragments. At some 
remote period of time not easy to discover, the 
Indians evidentlv made their arrow-heads and 

/ 

other implements of flint at this place. The stone 
of which they were made could not have been 



FLINT IMPLEMENTS. 103 

obtained nearer than at the Cascades (previously 
described in vol. i.), and must have been either 
traded from the Indians inhabiting that district, 
or brought from there by themselves. 

I am disposed to think a regular flint trade 
was carried on by these inland tribes, at some 
remote period, with the tribes living on the sea- 
board and lower parts of the Columbia. Not 
only were flints traded, but dentalia (tooth- 
shells), mother-o'pearl, and the barnacle parasitic 
on the back of the whale. I dug ornaments 
made from the three marine productions from out 
a gravel-bank, together with the centre skull in an 
Indian burial-ground (which it will be observed 
in the illustration* is unaltered by pressure 
during infancy), and a number of arrow-heads, 
fragments, and scrapers, made from flint, or 
other hard material, which must have been 
brought a very long distance, as it has no re- 
presentative in any rock found in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood. 

The place from whence I obtained these sin- 
gular relics was a gravel-bank, near Fort Colville, 
whilst digging out the nests of sand-martins. 
From the way in which the various things were 

* Vol. II. 



104 CROSSING THE SNAKE EIVEE. 

scattered about, their height above the river, 
together with many minor matters, induces 
me to think the place could never have been used 
as a burial-ground. I merely state the fact, in- 
cidentally of considerable interest to me,asbearing 
on the past history of the North-western tribes. 

We left Walla- walla on June 28, en route noTih- 
ward, to reach Fort Colville. I resume my 
journal : 

July 2. We are on the bank of the Snake 
river, one of the larger tributaries to the Co- 
lumbia; the river is 400 yards in width, and 
running like a mill-race. There had once been 
a ferry, in the shape of a large scow, that was 
worked from side to side by a truck-wheel 
traversing on an iron wire rope, strained across 
the river ; but, unluckily, the rope was broken, so 
we had to cross by sailing and paddling the scow, 
and a few canoes hired from the Indians. It was 
a most wearisome job, as the scow had to be 
towed on both sides of the river, far above the 
landing she had to reach, in order to compensate 
for the swift current. Crossing occupied the 
entire day, but success finally crowned our 
exertions. 

A short distance above where we are crossing 
I can see the mouth of the Pelouse river, a 2;ood- 



MUSTANG TRAILS. 105 

sized stream. The scenery is generally wild and 
massive; in every direction immense walls of 
rocks shut in the Snake river bare, black, and 
desolate ; not a tree or shrub grows from amidst 
their craggy ledges. I am told the course of this 
river may be followed for days in some places, 
and by no possible means can its waters be 
reached, so that one might die from thirst 
although on the bank of a river. 

One thing struck me as being very remarkable ; 
up the steepish ledges of these rocky clifts were 
trails, beaten bare as turnpike-roads, and so 
numerous that they almost resembled lines on a 
railway-map. At first I thought goats must have 
made them, but on enquiry I discover the paths 
are used by the Indian horses that belonged to the 
Pelouse tribe. The mustangs scramble up these 
precipitous tracts, to browse on the scanty herbage 
that grows in the clefts and on the ledges of the 
rocks. The Pelouse Indians were at one time 
numerous, predatory, and always at war, but this 
once-dreaded tribe has dwindled away to a mere 
remnant. 

Those that are left exist, rather than live, by 
fi&hing, shooting a few birds, and trapping small 
animals that frequent the plains and streams 
adjacent to their village on the Pelouse. Their 



106 FALLS OF THE LOWER PELOUSE. 

horses too have nearly all been taken from them, 
and the trails intersecting the hills are about the 
only records remaining of the herds of mustangs 
that once scrambled over their rocky slopes. 
Those of the Pelouse Indians I saw were fine 
athletic men for savages, but dirty, idle, and 
greedy to an unusual degree. Their canoes 
are clumsily dug out, and their lodges are made 
of rush and bark mats. 

July 3. We make an early start; I leave 
the mule-train to follow the course of the 
Pelouse river. The stream forces its way for 
many miles between vertical walls of basaltic 
rock; when standing on the edge of the canon, 
I look down at the surging water, 200 feet 
below me, and often more ; the faces of the rock 
walls are quite as smooth as if some giant had 
hammer-dressed them. I have never seen a 
more grand or stranger-looking waterfall than 
is this of the Lower Pelouse. The trail I follow 
is about a quarter of a mile from the river, 
winding in tortuous course between immense 
fragments of rock, that completely hide the 
country to my left ; ahead, a line of splintered 
peaks denotes the course of the river canon 
behind, I gaze back upon the Snake river, and 
the stupendous cliffs beetling over its frothy 



A GRAND SIGHT. 107 

water ; to my right, a grassy slope, smooth and 
green as a well-kept lawn, extends for miles, 
until lost in the distant haze. A heavy thun- 
dering sound directs me to the cataract, which 

O ' 

is at present hidden. 1 walk down the slope, and 
unexpectedly reach the edge of a narrow channel, 
about thirty feet in width and three hundred in 
depth. 

Not a hundred yards from where I stand, the 
entire river plunges over a vertical face of smooth 
rocks ; down it surges a depth of 300 feet, and 
possibly more, into the narrow channel into 
which I am looking. The singularity of this fall 
consists in the extremely narrow channel of 
basaltic rock through which the entire river is 
obliged to make its way before it dashes down this 
wondrous cliff. The river, at least a hundred 
feet wide on the plain, is narrowed to about thirty 
at the place where it falls over the rocks; hence 
the water leaps, if I may so express it, some 
distance from the rock on emerging from this 
natural launder, and falls vertically into the black 
chasm with a deafening roar like perpetual 
thunder. 

The sun shining brightly lights up the gloomy 
chasm, and gives the foaming current a brilliancy 
unlike anything I have ever seen an effect 



108 THE GREY- WOLF. 

heightened and intensified by contrast. I may 
aptly liken it, without any attempt at word-paint- 
ing, to a stream of liquid silver flowing through a 
channel of jet. As the rays of light mingle with 
the spray, that hangs like a dense fog round the 
watery column, their prismatic colours are re- 
flected from myriads of tiny water-drops, making 
fairy rainbows, that dance in mazy clusters from 
the base to the summit of the fall. Not a tree 
or shrub is anywhere visible, nothing but rock 
and water a scene matchless in its immensity. 
I am not so much charmed with the beauty of 
this wild landscape, as awed and (if I may so 
express it) absorbed and lost in wonder; its 
sublime grandeur impresses me with a feeling 
that it is something more than earthly. 

As I leave the fall, to retrace my steps to where 
I have tethered my horse, a large grey wolf sits 
eyeing me greedily. Turning from a scene that 
made me feel as a diatom might be supposed to 
feel in the jaws of a whale, to stand face to face 
with a large animal, that would eat me if he 
dared, for the moment so startled me, that I 
hesitated whether I should avoid my foe or fire 
at him ; the latter inclination prevailed. Drop- 
ping on one knee, I drew a steady bead upon the 
wolf; and ere the crack of the rifle was lost in the 



BIG LAKE. 10!) 

roar of the water, the beast that had presumed 
to intercept my path lay dead amidst the bright- 
green grass. The Grey Wolf ( Canis, Yar. ; 
Griseo albus, Richardson) grows in North- 
western America, when well-fed, to a very large 
size; naturally cowardly, it seldom attacks man, 
except when driven by hunger. I met with 
three species in British Columbia - - the one 
just alluded to, the Red Wolf (C. occidentalism 
and the ' Cayote' ( C. latraus). The Indians trap 
a great many wolves, their skins forming an 
important item in the fur-trade. One I brought 
home, a grey wolf, obtained at Colville (now in 
the British Museum collection) weighed ninety 
pounds, although this is not half the weight 
they attain on the Buffalo plains. 

Found the mule-train and party encamped at 
the Upper Pelouse falls very pretty, but tame 
and insignificant after viewing the lower cascade. 
Nothing of any interest, as we travel continu- 
ously over the same description of sandy treeless 
ground. I collected some beetles, most of them 
new species, described in the Appendix. 

July 6. We pass a lake called the ' Big Lake,' 
why I cannot imagine, as it is only about ten 
miles in length, and eleven in width ; altitude, 
2,000 feet above the sea-level. In the spring 



110 SWANS AND GEESE. 

and fall numbers of Indians resort to this lake 
to kill wildfowl, that rest on its waters during 
their migrations north and south. Swans and 
geese are most sought after, the following species 
being common : 

AMERICAN SWAN (Cygnus Americanus, Sharp- 
less). --This handsome swan is common on all 
the lakes and rivers east and west of the 
Cascade Mountains. I saw them on the Sumass 
lake as late as October, the young at that time 
being quite brown; their breeding haunts, I 
imagine, are much farther north. 

TRUMPETER SWAN (Cygnus bactinator, Rich- 
ardson). This magnificent bird is not nearly a,s 
often seen as the preceding. I obtained a 
fine specimen at Fort Rupert, and have occa- 
sionally seen it both on the Fraser and Columbia 
rivers ; they go very far north to breed. The 
Indians skin the swans, and trade them with the 
Hudson's Bay Company, who buy them for 
swan's-down. 

SNOW GOOSE (Anser hyperboreus, Pallas). 
Common east and west of the Cascades, 
stopping for a short time in the prairies inland, 
and the sand-bars along the coast, as it goes north, 
and on its returning after the breeding season. I 
obtained a fine specimen at Nainimo in October. 



A RIGHT-AND-LEFT SHOT. Ill 

The Indians kill large numbers of them, and for 
the table they certainly excel any of the other 
species. 

WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE, OR LAUGHING GOOSE 
(Anser Gambelii, Hartland). I noticed this sin- 
gular goose to be much more abundant on the west 
than it is on the eastern side of the Cascades. Im- 
mense flocks arrive,' in the spring and fall of the 
year, on the Sumass and Chilukweyuk prairies, 
resting only a few days to feed ; they are always 
in company with Hutchin's Goose. Indians kill 
great numbers, by making a kind of lair. They 
arch light sticks by fixing the ends in the ground, 
just high enough for a man to crawl under, and 
about six feet long ; this they cover with grass, to 
resemble a mound and rushes ; having crept in, 
the Indian lies still until a flock of geese pitch 
within shot; then, bowling over as many as he 
can, he loads again; the geese just circle round 
and pitch as before, and so he continues to fire 
until enough are slaughtered ; then out he creeps, 
to pick up the dead and wounded. 

CANADA GOOSE (Bernicla canadensis}. Com- 
mon east and west of the Cascade Mountains ; 
seldom seen but in pairs. In coming down from 
Colville to Walla-walla on our return home, in 
the beginning of March, I killed two Canada 



112 HUTCHINS GOOSE. 

geese near the Big Lake, a right-and-left shot. 
On opening the female, a fine fully-developed 
egg was discovered, the shell quite hard. I blew 
it, and it is now in the collection of the British 
Museum; that egg, I should imagine, would 
have been laid the next day, and must inevitably 
have been lost, as they breed much farther 
north ; it is a shy, wary bird, but capital eating. 

HUTCHIN'S GOOSE. Bernida Ilutcliinsii, Bonap. 
Very abundant east and west of the Cascades 
and on Vancouver Island ; arrives about March, 
going north, and returns again in September and 
October. Very large flocks feed on the grassy and 
swampy ground at the entrance to the Fraser 
River, and on the Sumass and Chilukweyuk 
prairies. It is also very plentiful in the Colville 
valley during the spring and fall. This goose 
has a most extended range. Specimens are 
recorded from Red River, from Hudson's Bay, 
from the Makenzie, from the Saskatchawan ; my 
own from British Columbia. I also saw it in 
Oregon. 

July 7. It is quite delightful to find oneself 
again amidst trees. The Pitch pine (Pinus pon- 
derosa) makes its appearance at first in scattered 
clumps that soon become a forest, quite devoid 
of underbush. 



BURNING FLIES. 113 

We were positively assured, that once over 
the Cascades, there would be no mosquitos. 

If we escape the mosquitos, we are amongst 
enemies quite as formidable, the Simulium or 
sand-fly, and the Tabanus or breeze-fly. Be it 
known to you, -ladies, that the males, or gentle- 
men sand-flies, brulots of the French- Canadian 
trappers, are not blood-suckers, but live on 
flowers and sip the honey in indolent enjoyment; 
what should have been the gentler sex are like 
Dahoniean Amazons, the sanguinary spirits of 
the tribe. In size, the sand-fly is not nearly so 
large as the mosquito, and, instead of being a 
slim, genteel blonde Madame Brulot, is as black as 
a Guinea negress her body is short and dumpy, 
her gauzy wings when folded nearly twice the 
length of the lady herself, and her legs somewhat 
long and slender. Her mouth is not a loveable 
one, being a bundle of fearful lancets, the sheath 
of which forms a tube through which the blood 
is sucked after the barbed stilettoes have done 
their work : an icorous fluid is in all probability 
instilled with the puncture, hence the intense 
irritation arising from the wound. 

Where the sand-fly lays her eggs is not, I be- 
lieve, very well known, but it is more than likely 
that they are deposited on the sterns of aquatic 

VOL. II. I 



114 A NOVEL LIFEBOAT. 

plants, for the larva is easily discovered holding 
on to them a little below the surface of the water. 
He is a long, round, ugly-looking grub, divided 
into twelve segments or rings. The second pair 
of feet are prehensile, and used for holding on by. 
He is rather active when undisturbed, but the 
slightest touch and he hangs by the feet, exactly 
resembling then a bit of dead rush. When the 
larva has attained its full growth, it spins a small 
delicately-fine silken bag, in which it changes to 
the pupa state ; this bag is invariably left open at 
the top, and, being spun the long way of the 
stalk to which it is affixed, the pupa is in an up- 
right position, and the head of the pupa protrudes 
a little way out of the bag. Four hair-like fila- 
ments, like horns, project from the head of the 
pupa, and are supposed to be breathing organs. 
About the end of June the delicate little fly bursts 
from its sarcophagus, and prepares for an aerial 
existence; and a contrivance utterly different 
from the mosquito boat, yet equally beautiful 
and effective, aids the newly-liberated captive to 
escape being drowned. Maturity attained, the 
pupa-case splits down the back, and the end of 
the silken bag being open, out creeps the fly, 
not into the water, but into a minute silken 
balloon, a part of the pupa-case, or, I imagine, the 



DISAGREEABLE WALTZERS. 11/5 

lining of it. Loose from its moorings, steadily the 
balloon ascends through the water with its living 
freight. On reaching the surface, the fly breaks 
through its slender walls, spreads its wings, and 
with a hum of delight, away goes Brulot to revel 
in the sunshine amidst the leaves and flowers. I 
may as well describe this day's journey, the 
misery of which I shall never forget. 

Flowers in wild profusion peep up in myriads 
from among the green bunch-grass ; the birds are 
busy in every tree and bush some building nests, 
others feeding their little ones. The air, heavily 
laden with perfume, seems too idle to move ; and 
the great striped humble-bees, as they tumble 
from flower to flower, buzz a drowsy song of 
satisfaction. Very enjoyable but for the clouds of 
sand-flies that the mules and horses composing 
our pack-train stir up from the grass at every step, 
and, as if the flies have been accustomed to regale 
themselves daily on the blood of man and beast, 
at once cover the animals so thickly that they look 
almost black. Kicking, plunging, and even rolling 
on the grass avails not, to rid the tortured beasts 
from their assailants. Unlike the bite of a mos- 
quito, that left only an irritable lump, blood 
flows from every puncture made by the terrible 
lancets. They waltz round my head like a 

I 2 



116 THE FATE OF JOHNSON. 

swarm of bees, and but for a net veil I luckily 
have with me, my face would be savagely attacked 
and my skin rapidly converted into a kind of 
wire gauze. I pick, as do each of the packers 
accompanying me, large bunches of leafy twigs, 
and whirling them round and round, strive, 
though vainly, to sweep the vexatious intruders 
away. My heart is really grieved to see the . 
poor suffering animals obliged, spite of every 
effort of tail, legs, and ears, to bear the torture 
without even the proverbial relief of a ' grin.' 
One good little mule, we call him Johnson (that 
being the name of his late master), grows fagged, 
as mules very frequently do, and when in that 
condition neither force nor persuasion is of the 
slightest use to induce them, to ' move on : ' all 
you can do is to unpack and distribute the load 
amongst the other mules, leaving the tired animal 
on the trail. After camping and supper over, a 
packer rides back after the missing mule, and 
usually has no difficulty in bringing him into 
camp. Poor Johnson is unpacked and left on 
the trail, and as we camp very soon after leaving 
him, two packers at once go in pursuit. Short, 
however, as the time and distance are, it is 
with immense trouble they slowly get him into 
camp. Such a pitiable sight as the poor beast 



THE ONLY WAY TO KEEP THEM OFF. 117 

presents I never beheld, covered literally and 
truly from head to heel with sand-flies. Each of 
these little harpies looks pink. Their skins, 
stretched to a state of transparency, reveals the 
colour of the fluid they are gorged with. You 
would not know that it was a mule if you 
stumbled by accident on it, so fearfully is poor 
Johnson swollen from the poisoned punctures. 
We did all we could to relieve his sufferings, lit 
a fire, and smoked off the flies, washed and greased 
him, but all to no purpose. About two hours 
after he was brought in, he died. Who would 
have dreamed such pigmies could kill a powerful 
mule in two or three hours ! 

The only plan of protecting yourself and your 
animals is to light large smouldering fires so as 
to produce voluminous clouds of smoke. This 
the brulots are unable to stand ; the poor animals 
know it, and crowd round the smoking embers, 
hustling one another in their anxiety to be the 
nearest. The Indians all adopt this method, and 
wherever Indian horses are grazing in summer 
time, immense fallen trees that are sufficiently 
dry to burn are lighted from end to end, and round 
these all day long the horses crowd. At night the 
sand-flies give but little trouble, and, like sensible 
insects, take a few hours' repose. Most appro- 



1 18 BREEZE-FLY. 

priately were they named 'burning flies,' for, 
wherever they thrust in the lancet, it is just as 
though a brad-awl needle had been bored slowly 
into one's flesh. They continue the summer 
through until September, but luckily are con- 
fined to particular districts. Sandy soil, and lots 
of water, are the essential elements conducive 
to their welfare and multiplication. Bad as these 
burning flies are, I still maintain Madam Mos- 
quito is far the worst. The Ladies Brulot do in- 
dulge in a short repose, but Mistress Mosquito, I 
believe, never winks her eyes, and is always on 
the move. 

By Breeze-fly I mean flies belonging to the 
genus Tabanus, not those of the genus (Estrus, 
with which they are frequently confounded. The 
latter commonly called Bot-fly, which is also a 
terrible pest, alike avoided by both horse and 
ruminant deposits its eggs sometimes on the 
hair, and sometimes underneath the skin ; hence 
animals, guided by a natural instinct, or having 
been the victims of a past and painful expe- 
rience, all at the sound of his dreaded trumpet 
make the best of their way to the nearest water, 
into which they plunge. 

On the contrary, in the Breeze-fly we have to 
do with a veritable blood-sucker, more ravenous 



THE CLARION SHRILL. 119 

than would be any winged leech. There are 
three species, all three by far too plentiful for 
the comfort of either man or beast, and widely 
distributed in North-west America. These 
insects have an apparent ubiquity, and are 
literally everywhere. Ascend to the regions of 
eternal snow, there are hungry Breeze-flies 
awaiting one's arrival; by the rushing torrent, 
on the shores of the placid lake, under the deep 
damp shadows of the pine-trees, or on the open 
flower-decked prairie, there are sure to be 
Breeze-flies. One barely hears the sound of its 
' clarion shrill ' and hum of the rapidly-vibrating 
wings, ere one feels a sharp prick, as though a 
red-hot needle had been thrust into the flesh ; 
stab follows stab in quick succession, and unless 
active measures of defence be resorted to, the 
skin speedily assumes the form of a sieve. 

The horses and mules give immediate notice 
of the enemy by viciously throwing up their heads 
and heels, snorting, and, very possibly, indeed I 
may say generally, summarily discharging their 
loads, be they human or baggage, over their 
heads. Whether success attends this disagreeable 
habit or not, in any case a hasty retreat is made 
for the nearest water, where both man and beast 
well know the Breeze-fly seldom or never follows. 



120 THE LADY BREEZE-FLY. 

I have frequently seen a train of pack-mules com- 
pletely scattered by these formidable pests. 

The largest and fiercest is the Black Breeze- 
fly (Tabanus atratus). His body is like glossy 
black velvet, frosted over with a delicate white 
bloom, like a freshly-gathered Orleans plum ; 
it is about an inch in length; the wings, like 
pale blue gauze, when at rest are always kept 
in a horizontal position; the alulets are large 
and strong. The eyes are exquisitely beautiful, 
in colour dark-blue, but glittering with the lustre 
of highly-polished gems, and nearly covering the 
entire head. 

The next in size is the Belted Breeze-fly 
(Tabanus cinctus\ about one- third smaller than 
his sable brother. He is clad in bright orange 
livery, banded with stripes almost black; and 
has a most showy appearance, being decidedly the 
best dressed fly of the family. The eyes are 
emerald green, and, when viewed in the bright 
sunlight, have the appearance of being cut into 
numerous facets. 

The third or smallest is the Lined Breeze-fly 
( Tabanus lineatus}, of a bluish colour, and marked 
only with a white line along the top of the head. 
In this fly the eyes are of bluish-green, and 
uuite as beautiful as in the two preceding. 



NOT KISSABLE. 121 

The Lady Breeze-fly, I am grieved to say, is 
far more to be dreaded than her lord. These 
insects can never, one would suppose, enjoy the 
luxury and delight, or whatever may be the 
proper term applicable to such a universal habit 
as kissing. How could a winged lady, I should 
like to know, be kissed by a winged wooer when 
her lips are a bundle of lancets, six in number, 
and as sharp as a surgeon's? True the male has 
four blade-like instruments arming the mouth, 
but it is questionable whether he uses them for 
other purposes than that of sucking nectar from 
flowers. The apparatus of the female is beau- 
tifully adapted for puncturing the skin and then 
pumping up the fluid through the sheath of the 
lancets, that acts as a tube or canula. It would 
be of trifling interest to advert more in detail 
to the minute anatomy of these insects; that 
can be better learned from works on structural 
entomology ; the habits of the insect in far- 
away lands, sketched from personal gleanings, 
being more strictly my province. The rambler 
alone has an opportunity to investigate the 
haunts and watch the habits of strange beasts, 
birds, and insects ; to the anatomist, at home 
in cosy closet, belongs the task of developing, 
with scalpel and microscope, the complicated 



122 THE LARVA FORM. 

machinery by which life's varied duties are car- 
ried on. 

The larva lives in the earth, a grub easily dug 
up in the moist prairie lands ; of an elongated 
sub-cylindrical form, tapering off towards each 
extremity ; its colour a dingy yellow ; destitute 
of feet; having a body divided into twelve 
segments, each segment being banded with a row 
of minute horny hooks an admirable con- 
trivance, enabling it to drag itself along through 
the earth. The head is horny, and brownish- 
yellow in colour, also armed with hooks to aid in 
progression. The pupa I have never seen, but 
De Geer tells us the pupa of Tab anus bovinus is 
'naked, incomplete, elongated, sub-cylindrical, 
with six spines at the end of the body, the 
margins of the abdominal segments ciliated, 
and the forehead bi-tubercled.' 

Where or when the eggs of the Tabanidce are 
deposited is not generally known, but it is more 
than probable on the stems of plants, to which 
they are fastened by a glutinous secretion; the 
grub, when hatched, falling on the ground, at 
once buries itself. Neither is it known how long 
a time the larva remains in the earth ere it 
changes to the pupa form. 

I remember once being busily occupied all 



A FORCIBLE EJECTMENT. 123 

day collecting beetles and other insects in the 
dense, shady pine forests, close to a small stream 
called the Selece, that flows down the western 
slope of the Cascade mountains : boxes, bottles, 
bags, even my hat, indeed every available locality 
about my person was appropriated to the stowage 
and transport of the proceeds of my hunt. My 
mustang had been tethered close to the water, and 
had thus kept clear of the Breeze-flies during my 
absence ; soon, however, after mounting him to 
return, emerging from the forest, I came on a 
small patch of open prairie land, but no sooner 
was I clear of the timber than the pests were at 
us. My beast commenced practising every 
species of jump and leap that it was possible for 
a horse to execute, and several of them of a nature 
so extraordinary that one would have thought no 
animal that ever went on four legs could a.com- 
plish ; he pranced, shied, kicked, leaped forward, 
backward, sideways in a word, performed such 
demoniacal pranks, that, although a practised 
horseman, I found it a most difficult matter to 
keep my seat. As a finale, off he went like a 
mad creature, caring nothing for all my efforts 
to stop him : then, as if from sheer madness caused 
by the punctures of the flies, that followed like a 
swarm of enraged bees, he stopped suddenly short, 



124 PROBABLY THE ZIMB. 

viciously threw his head between his forelegs, 
and at the same time elevated his hind ones into 
the air ; the whole being performed with such 
sudden and savage violence that I was pitched 
clean out of the saddle : boxes, bottles, bags, to- 

' O 7 

gether with all my insect treasures, lay scattered 
over the prairie, and ere I could regain my feet I 
had the satisfaction of seeing him put his legs 
into the bridle-reins, drag it clean off his head, 
and, with a snort that sounded mightily like a 
derisive horse laugh, he galloped off, leaving me 
to my own devices. I mention this little adven- 
ture to show how terribly these pests can madden 
an animal. 

From an intimacy by no means sought, or on 
my part cultivated, with the Tdbanidce, or Breeze- 
flies, I am disposed to think the fly called Zimb, 
and described by Bruce, belonged to this family, 
and was not an CEstrus, as many have supposed. 
Speaking of the Zimb, in reference to the camel 
and elephant : ' When the first of these animals 
are attacked, its body, head, and legs break out 
into large bosses, which swell, burst and putrefy, 
to its certain destruction.' Just such effects have 
I again and again seen amongst horses and mules. 
One mule we had to abandon on the prairie (a 
disabled foot preventing its travelling any farther) 



A FOREST OF HORNS. ]25 

was, when we returned for it, so stung by the 
Breeze-flies as to be one mass of small ichorous 
ulcers from head to hoofs; so pitiable was the 
poor beast's plight, its injured limb having pre- 
cluded all chance of escape from the flies, that, as 
a mere matter of humanity, it was at once shot. 
I have also frequently seen tethered horses so 
injured by the punctures of the Breeze-fly as to 
be rendered useless for many months. Their 
favourite places for puncturing are on the front 
of the chest where the saddle goes, and inside 
the thighs. If a man were tied or otherwise 
disabled, so that all chance of beating off or 
escaping from the Breeze-fly was out of his power, 
I have no hesitation in asserting my firm convic- 
tion that they would rapidly kill him. 

The Belted Breeze-fly is most abundant, a lady 
charmingly dressed in orange flounced with black, 
very attractive when you see her sunning herself 
amid the petals of some prairie flower, but a closer 
acquaintance destroys the charm, as she soon 
lets you feel her power of wounding. 

Travelling in Oregon one constantly finds one's- 
self on the banks of a wide glassy lake ; gazing 
over its unrippled surface, the eye suddenly rests 
on what, to the inexperienced in hunter's craft, 
appears to be small clumps of twisted branches, 



126 CLARK'S CROW. 

or dead and leafless tree-tops, the trunks of which 
are hidden in the water; but the Indian and 'trap- 
per' discerns in a second that the apparent 
branches are the antlers of a herd of Wapiti that 
have been driven into the water by Breeze-flies. 
Wild cattle seek a like means of protecting them- 
selves against such terrible foes : a perfect forest 
of horns may frequently be witnessed in a pool, 
but not a vestige of the bullocks, save their noses, 
kept above water for the purpose of breathing. 

For the first time I notice that singular bird 
CLARK'S CROW, Picicorvus Columbianus (Bon.), 
hopping busily from branch to branch amidst the 
pine trees. 

Wilson, in his 'American Ornithology,' in giving 
a brief notice of this bird, says : ' It is remarkable 
for its formidable claws, which approach to those 
of the Falco genus, and would seem to intimate 
that its food consists of living animals, for whose 
destruction these weapons must be necessary. It 
inhabits the shores of the Columbia, frequenting 
the rivers and sea-shore, probably feeding on 
fish.' There never could have been a greater 
mistake; the bird never frequents the river 
banks, never by any chance eats fish, and would 
no more attempt the capture of other living 
things than would a turtle-dove or a canary-bird. 



CEOWBAE VEESUS CEOSS-BILL. 127 

Its habits are strictly arboreal, its food the seeds 
of the pine-trees. Watching a flock of these 
busy, noisy seed-hunters, one notices at a glance 
how curiously they hang on to the cones; and 
five minutes' observation tells you what the claws, 
so falcon-like in appearance, are for better than 
a month's guessing. 

Clark's ' crows ' have, like the cross-bills, to get 
out the seeds from underneath the scaly cover- 
ings constituting the outward side of a fir cone ; 
nature has not given them crossed-mandibles to 
lever open the scales, but instead, feet and claws 
that serve the purpose of hands, and apowerful bill, 
like a small crowbar. To use the crowbar to advan- 
tage, the cone needs steadying, or it would snap 
at the stem and fall ; to accomplish this, one foot 
clasps it, and the powerful claws hold it firmly, 
whilst the other foot, encircling the branch, sup- 
ports the bird, either back downward, head down- 
ward, on its side, or upright like a woodpecker, the 
long grasping claws being equal to any emergency : 
the cone thus fixed and a firm hold maintained 
on the branch, the seeds are gouged out from 
under the scales. I have now a large packet of 
seeds, some of which have been grown (the 
seeds of Abies Dovglassii), that I cut from the 
crops of ' Clark's Crows ; ' indeed it is next to 



128 NEST OF ' CLARK' S CROW.' 

impossible to obtain the seeds of some of the very 
tall pines in any other way, a cruel system of col- 
lecting I should ever discountenance, if the poor 
birds were sacrificed merely with the hope of ob- 
taining seeds from their crops. Those killed 
were for specimens to bring home. A few win- 
ter in British Columbia, but the larger propor- 
tion go southward in September. On their 
arrival in May, or early in June, they assemble 
in immense flocks, and so terribly loud is the 
noise they make, that you can hardly hear the 
sound of your own or others' voice ; a most dis- 
cordant, continuous, grating clatter, intensified 
at times into a perfect shriek. These assemblies 
only last about a week, during which time the 
wooing is done, and marriages celebrated, the 
favoured birds getting such fair ones as they 
choose, the less fortunate such as they can. 

The pairs then depart, to perform the all-im- 
portant duties of nesting. The nest I saw (I 
never succeeded in finding more than one) was 
in the top of a lofty pine-tree, at least 200 feet 
high ; the tree was felled in cutting the Boundary 
line, and by chance I discovered the nest. The 
eggs were of course smashed to atoms, but the 
old birds hovered round and even perched 
on the ruins of their nursery, leaving no 



A SMASHED NURSERY. 129 

doubt about its being the nest of ' Clark's 
Crow.' 

The nest was very large, and composed of fir- 
twigs, bits of bark, the bracts or leaves of the 
pine, and fine root-fibres ; some small pieces of 
moss and grey lichen were mixed carelessly with 
the other materials. The shape was difficult to 
make out, as the crash of the falling tree had 
damaged it considerably ; but I should say it was 
shallow, round, and presenting a large extent of 
surface beyond the margins of the hollow con- 
taining the eggs. The remains of about four eggs 
were, I should think, scattered round, the frag- 
ments much like the eggs of Steller's Jay in 
colour, but of a lighter shade of bluish -green. 
From the fact of my never by any chance finding 
a nest low down, I imagine their habit is always 
to build in the very tallest pines. West of the 
Cascades I believe it is unknown, that ridge of 
mountains being its boundary northward. Its 
size is about that of a pigeon; length 12 inches, 
wing 7^, tail 4|, tarsus 1^. Colour, bluish-ash, 
lighter on the forehead and round the eyes. 
Wings nearly black, with a shade of green over- 
spreading it. Secondaries and tertials (except 
the innermost) tipped broadly with white; tail' 
white, the inner webs of the fifth and the whole 

VOL. n. K 



130 GROUND-SQUIRRELS. 

of the sixth feather black. Tail-coverts same 
colour as wings. 

July 8. After crossing a very high ridge we 
look suddenly down into the valley of the Spokan 
river. The river has a very rapid flow, and 
where we ferry it, in a scow worked by a rope 
from side to side, it is about 150 yards wide. The 
charge for crossing was, I think, a dollar (45.) per 
head for packed mules ; the cattle swam it. 

We camp on a grassy flat, known as Walker's 
Prairie, a few miles from the ferry, where a 
solitary settler keeps a rough kind of inn. I 
wander across the prairie, and am amused with 
the freaks of the ground-squirrels (Spermophilus 
Parryi, Richardson) ; they live in burrows dug 
in all directions into mounds, which mounds, I 
think, are not made by the squirrels. By keeping 
still I soon saw numbers of them emerge from 
their holes, chase one another round the hillock, 
up one side, down the other, as if they were occu- 
pied in playing some game fashionable in squirrel- 
dom. If I move or otherwise make my presence 
known, shrill whistles oft repeated warn the as- 
semblage that danger is at hand ; each at once 
makes for its hole and disappears. In coming 
from out their burrows, their habit is to sit upon 
their haunches at the entrance, and with their tiny 



PARKMAN'S WREN. 131 



forefeet brush the whiskers, ears, eyes, and head 
in general, I suppose, to remove particles of dirt 



accumulated in passing through the tunnel. 

It is curious to note how three species of 
ground-squirrels have replaced each other in 
accordance with the change of vegetation in our 
transit from the Dalles to where we are now en- 
camped. 

At the Dalles we saw SpermopTiilus Douglassii, 
the Columbia Ground Squirrel (described in 
vol. i.), extending only as far as the scrub-oak 
grew, the Fall river being its boundary going 
north towards Colville. 

Betwixt the Fall river and the Spokan, inhabi- 
ting the sandy and woodless plains, Richardson's 
Ground Squirrel (S. Richardsonii, Cuv.) is alone 
found. After crossing the Spokan and getting 
into the timbered regions, the ground-squirrel I 
have been looking at takes its place, and extends 
from the Spokan to the slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

July 9. To-day we have a charming drive 
through grass and open timbered land, like a 
succession of beautiful parks. Cross several 
small streams, icy cold, but clear as crystal. 
By these rivulets I noticed Parkman's Wren 
(Troglodytes Parkmannii, Aud.). 

K 2 



132 SLENDER-BILL NUTHATCH. 

It is difficult to watch its movements, so 
diminutive is it in size, and yet so quick withal. 
The mellow song of the wrens se'ems almost 
like fairy music ; and sounds so delicately sweet 
appear to be out of place amidst such giant 
trees. 

The nest is in shape like that of our house- 
hold pets, built against a dead stump, or in the 
deep clefts in the bark of a pine-tree which are 
often taken advantage of, to act as lateral walls. 
Its skill in imitating the colour and appearance of 
the bark is perfectly wonderful : even when one 
has watched the bird go in, it is most difficult to 
make out that it is a nest and not real bark; 
take the eye off the spot but an instant, and 
goodbye to finding the nest again, except the 
birds go in and out. They build in June, six 
or seven eggs being generally laid, and arrive 
about the middle of May, leaving in September, 
young and old together. 

Nuthatches were busy in nearly every pine- 
tree, with their constant companions the restless 
tits. The three species common in the forests 
east of the Cascades are : 

THE SLENDER-BILL NUTHATCH (Sitta aculeata, 
Cassin). This nuthatch is very abundant in 
the pine-forests from the coast .to the Rocky 



CALIFORNIA NUTHATCH. 13.3 

Mountains; never seen in large flocks, but 
usually alone, or in twos and threes. Remained 
about Colville during the winter, when the 
temperature was 30 below zero. Nests in holes 
in the branches of the tallest pine-trees, so high 
as to render getting the eggs almost an im- 
possibility. They nest early in June. 

RED-BELLIED NUTHATCH (Sitta canadensis, 
Linn.). Very common on Vancouver Island 
and on the Sumass prairies, but rather a rare 
bird between the Cascades and Rocky Mountains. 
I have seldom seen more than one or two 
together, and then generally in dark swampy 
places. Nests in holes in dead trees ; eggs laid 
on the dust made in working out the hole. 

CALIFORNIA NUTHATCH. (Sitta pygmcea, 
Vigors). An abundant little bird along the 
entire length of the Boundary-line from the coast 
to the Rocky Mountains, also common on Van- 
couver Island : you always see these little fellows 
in large flocks in company with the Chickadees, 
except during the nesting-time, which is in 
June. A few remain about Colville during the 
winter, but the greater portion leave in November. 

These most active birds are always on the 
move ; after nesting-time they congregate in 
large flocks, and, rejoining their companions the 



134 THE TITMOUSE. 

tits and golden-crests, fly on without any ap- 
parent care as to direction constantly flitting 
from tree to tree, twittering a low sweet note, as if 
singing to themselves sometimes climbing back 
downwards along the under-sides of the topmost 
branches of the tall pines, peering into every 
crevice for insect-hiders ; at others, descending to 
the ground, they cling to the slender flower- 
stalks to catch drowsy insects, sipping the sweets 
stored in these perfumed drinking-places. 

They nest in June, making a hole in the dead 
branch of a pine-tree ; there is no lining in the 
hole, but the eggs are laid on the dust made in 
enlarging or boring it. Eggs in British Museum 
collection from Colville. They range northward 
to Fort Simpson, and southward through Oregon 
and California. This applies to all three species. 

The following four species represent the 
Tits : 

WESTERN TITMOUSE (Parus occidentalis., 
Baird). Common on Vancouver Island and 
along the whole course of the Boundary line to 
the summit of the Rocky Mountains. A few 
remain during the winter at Colville, but the 
greater portion leave in November and arrive 
again in April; they nest in June, choosing a 
hole in a dead tree ; line the nest with grass and 



THE c DEAD MAN'S PRAIRIE.' 135 

feathers; after the nesting-time they assemble 
in large flocks, and feed in company with the 
Mountain Tit and the Golden-crested Wrens, 
then keep together until they take their depar- 
ture south. 

MOUNTAIN TITMOUSE (Parus montanus, 
Gambel). This bird has just the same range 
and distribution as the preceding, and agrees 
with it in habit, periods of migration, and nesting 
time, but it is not nearly so plentiful. 

CHESTNUT-BACKED TITMOUSE (Parus ru/escens, 
Townsend). This little fellow is very abundant 
on the Sumass prairies, and along the Fraser 
river, but rare between the Cascades and Rocky 
Mountains. I met with it at Colville, in company 
with a flock of Golden- crested Wrens, and once 
at Syniakwateen ; hence I am disposed to think it 
is more common along the coast-line than in the 
interior. It arrives in May, and leaves again in 
September. I never found its nest. The nor- 
thern range of these tits is about lat. 53 N., and 
south through Oregon and California. 

LEAST TIT (Psaltriparus minimus, Bonap.). 

I saw this tiny tit but twice, at Sumass 

prairie and on the Nesqually plains, but had no 
opportunities to observe its habits. I expect it 
is more plentiful than one would imagine; its 



13n ARRIVAL AT FORT COLVILLE. 

small size, and habit of hiding in thick brush, 
renders it extremely difficult to find. 

We camp at a place called 'Dead Man's Prairie.' 
Three roughly-made crosses denote the graves 
of three men, who (so the story goes) lost their 
way on this prairie, and having no provisions, 
dus; roots to live on; but not knowing the edible 

O ' tj 

from the poisonous varieties, ate some bulbs that 
killed all three of them; their bodies were 
discovered and buried, and the place has been 
named Dead Man's Prairie ever since. 

From this not very cheering spot we follow up 
the Colville valley, pass by some very good farms, 
where excellent grain and vegetables are grown; 
and on the 12th reach our destination, Fort Col- 
ville, already described in vol. i., in the chapter 
on Salmon Fishing at the Kettle Falls (page 71). 



COLVILLE VALLEY. 137 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE COLVILLE VALLEY OUR HEADQUARTERS THE WHITE-BELLIED 
SWALLOW - - CLIFF SWALLOW BANK SWALLOW - - ROUGH- 
WINGED SWALLOW BARN SWALLOW AND ITS STRANGE NEST- 
ING-PLACE VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW WESTERN MEADOW 

LARK - - TOWNSEND'S FLYCATCHER -- AMERICAN RAVENS - 
BULLOCK'S ORIOLE BREWER'S BLACKBIRD OR WESTERN 

GRACKLE OR CANADA VAY WHISKY JACK LESSER REDPOLE 

THE LAZULI FINCH OREGON GROUND ROBIN GREY- 
CROWNED FINCH. 

THE United States Boundary Commission were 
stationed about eighteen miles from the Hudson's 
Bay Company's fort. It would be of little in- 
terest to recount the building of our log-quarters, 
stowing provisions, and completing all the re- 
quisite arrangements for the coming winter. It 
will suffice to say, all was satisfactorily arranged, 
and ample provision made for the commissariat 
of both men and animals. 

Colville valley, in which we erected our head- 
quarters, does not belong to British Columbia, 
but is in American territory. There was no 



138 HEADQUARTERS. 

other place north of the Boundary line, as it 
passes the Columbia, so well suited for the 
purposes of the Commission as this valley hence 
the Commissioner fixed on it as our headquarters. 
It was a glorious place for birds: which were 
in great force. All my notes on the habits of 
the different species of birds I observed, shot, and 
brought home, would fill a ponderous volume ; 
the full list of species is given in the Appendix. 
For special description a few groups are selected, 
whose habits are not generally known, or which 
vary in accordance with local modifying causes- 
matters always interesting to the general reader 
as well as to the naturalist. Swallows are always 
in great abundance, arriving from southward 
when the insects make their appearance. 

THE WHITE-BELLIED SWALLOW (Hirundo bi- 
cofor,Vieillot) is one of the most abundant species 
visiting Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 
reaching an altitude, on the Cascades and Rocky 
Mountains, of 7,000 feet above the sea-level. 
Its favourite hawking-grounds are the open 
prairies, or round the margin and over the 
surfaces of lakes, large and small. 

Unlike the species next described, this swallow 
always builds its nest in dead willow or cotton- 
wood trees, and lines it with ducks' feathers. 



CLIFF SWALLOW. 139 

I am quite sure these swallows dig a hole in the 
solid tree, a feat their soft beaks appear hardly 
fitted for, inasmuch as I saw one begun and 
finished at the Sumass prairie, where great 
numbers of swallows annually resort to build, 
finding there an abundance of the favourite soft 

e> 

willow- wood. 

CLIFF SWALLOW (Hirundo lunifrons, Say). 
I never saw this bird on the west side of the 
Cascades, but it is very abundant between the 
Cascades and Rocky Mountains. Arrives at 
Colville in May and June, in immense flocks. On 
arriving they at once fix on some steep rock with 
an exposed surface ; days and days are spent in 
whirling round and round this intended building - 
site, chattering, and clearly having warm and 
angry debates, about the summer labour; they at 
last adjust all preliminary arrangements, then 
set to work in earnest. 

Cliff-swallows are the most sociable of birds, and 
work together in hundreds, side by side, on Very 
amicable terms. The nests are made of mud ; in 
shape like a retort, with long narrow neck like a 
chimney, which the birds creep through to reach 
the globular nest ; this neck is artfully bent, to 
prevent the eggs or young from falling out. A 
form of nest clearly designed to prevent the ac- 



140 BANK SWALLOW. 

cess of wet, and act as a safeguard against the de- 
predations of birds of prey, a highly necessary 
precaution ; the nest, placed 011 a bare surface of 
rock, unsheltered by even a leaf, is visible to every 
passing plunderer ; and further, its form shades 
the sitting bird from the intense heat of the sun. 

Frequently fifteen or twenty nests are piled 
on one another, their long- tubular mud entrances 
sticking out in all directions. It is a pretty 
sight in a houseless country to watch these fea- 
thered masons, always suggestive of home, and 
the familiar martin, that builds its mud-nurseries 
under the eaves of our residences, recalling sad 
though pleasant memories of friends far away, 
perhaps, like I am, watching the mason-birds. 

After nesting-time they abandon the rock with 
their families, and scatter over the prairies, reas- 
sembling, prior to their final start for the south, 
in September; the nesting-time is in June, five 
eggs being usually the number laid. 

BANK SWALLOW (Cotyle riparia, Boir). 
These arrive at Colville in May and June, but 
somewhat earlier along the coast and at Van- 
couver Island. They are widely distributed, and 
generally frequent the larger river-banks. On 
their first arrival they assemble in immense num- 
bers, sometimes so completely covering a dead 



BARN SWALLOW. 141 

tree as to stand on one another for lack of room; 
then they pair, and make their nests in sand- 
banks, digging about fifteen or twenty inches in ; 
line the hole with grass and the fronds of the 
pine-tree. They leave again in September. 
Lay four or five eggs. 

ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Cotyle serripennis, 
Bonap.). This swallow arrives about the same 
time as the sand-martin, and has much the 
same habits and distribution, but differs in 
its choice of nesting-place. Like the woodpecker, 
this bird either makes a hole in a dead pine- 
tree, or, taking possession of one already made 
therein, builds a nest of feathers and deer-hairs, 
lays four or five eggs, and fetches out its brood in 
July. The eggs are most difficult to obtain, the 
trees selected for nesting being usually too rotten 
to climb. 

BAEN SWALLOWS (Hirundo horreorum, Bar- 
ton) are common on Vancouver Island, and on 
both sides of the Cascade Mountains. They 
arrive at Colville in May and June, and build 
either under a ledge of rock, or in an old out- 
building, if such can be found. 

Whilst at our depot at Syniakwateen (vide 
illustration in Volume I.) a solitary pair of 
barn-swallows paid us a visit. A small shanty 



142 SELECTING A SITE. 

stood a short distance from the log-huts, 
loosely built with poles, and shingled over to 
keep out the rain, in which our two black- 
smiths were always at work. Early on a sum- 
mer morning, towards the end of June, my 
attention was directed to two barn -swallows 
perched on the roof of the little shed. They did 
not exhibit the slightest fear or alarm, although 
the bellows snorted and wheezed, and sent my- 
riads of brilliant sparks from the crackling char- 
coal dancing into the air; whilst the hammer, 
plied by a lusty arm, rang a merry peal as it 
smote the ruddy iron. Presently off they flew, 
and circling round entered the house, and care- 
fully examined the poles supporting the roof. 
Perching on them here and there, they felt 
the surface with their beaks, then twittered in 
the most excited manner to each other. This 
system of selecting a site was repeated several 
times, until the question was evidently settled 
and decided upon. 

The following day the foundation-stone was 
laid, a tiny bit of mud being affixed to the beam 
just over the anvil; and although the hammer 
constantly passed close to the birds and their 
building, still they went steadily on with their 
work. In about three days the nest began to 



THE NEST. 143 

assume a rough outline of what its form was 
eventually to be; its shape, when completed, 
being very like the half of a teacup stuck against 
a wall. Being curious to see from whence they 
procured their building materials, I tracked them 
to the edge of the stream, where, on a tiny kind 
of beach, they worked up the clay and fine sand 
into mortar with their delicate beaks. For days 
these feathered architects, with unwearying pa- 
tience, journeyed to and from the brick-field, 
making their own bricks, carrying them home, 
and carefully laying them. 

The house is built; and next to furnish it. 
First of all, minute bits of soft dry grass were 
brought, and laid on the bottom, and round the 
rough walls ; this occupied about two days ; then 
excursions had to be made along the banks of 
the stream, where ducks' feathers and bits of 
goose-clown were picked up, brought home, and 
neatly deposited on the grass lining, until the 
inside was made as smooth and soft as an eider- 
down pillow. The trustful couple knew no fear. 
I frequently stood on a log to watch them, their 
feathers touching my face as they toiled at their 
brickwork twisting, shaping, fitting, and gluing 
the bricks together with an adhesive salivary 
secretion. 



144 THE FLEDGLINGS. 

Three days after the work was completed, the 
first egg was laid, and then one on every second 
day, until five were in the nest, and the process 
of incubation commenced. As far as I could 
observe, the eggs were never uncovered. The 
hen-bird sat by far the greater part of the tune, 
but, on her leaving the nest to feed, the male 
invariably took her place. In time, five infant 
swallows that, to perpetrate a pun, were veri- 
tably all swallow gaped greedily for food. Hard 
the couple toiled, to feed their hungry family. As 
the little ones grew and thrived, their residence 
was too small to hold them; a daring spirit came 
with their feathers, and, becoming strong, they 
made rash attempts to scramble out on the edge 
of the nest, and there, in the most unsteady 
manner, to balance themselves until angrily 
knocked in again on the return of the old birds. 

At last they abandoned their nursery, and 
three succeeded in getting upon the pole to which 
the nest was attached, and two fell on the floor ; 
and what might have been their fate I do not 
know, if the old Yulcans had not picked them up 
and placed them with their brethren. A few 
days' training taught the fledglings the use of their 
wings; then taking their departure from the 
shanty, the family started to brave the perils of 



VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW. 145 

the world. Where white man's foot had never 
trodden before in the solitude of a primeval 
forest, in a rough shanty formed by human hands, 
where the roaring bellows and clanging hammer 
kept chorus all day long there two swallows, 
trusting that man would harm them not, erected 
their mansion, watched and reared their children. 
Where they would have built their house had not 
man's handiwork provided them with a site, I 
hardly know. I never but once again saw this 
swallow's nest, and this was built under a bridge 
we made across a small stream. I suppose they 
must find old caverns or holes in the rocks, for, 
being an open nest, it must be sheltered from the 
rain. 

VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW (Hirundo Thallas- 
sina, Swainson).- - This beautiful swallow is 
common from the coast, along the entire course 
of the Boundary-line, to the summit of the 
Rocky Mountains. They are amongst the earliest 
visitors at Colville, arriving in small flocks in 
March, but in greater numbers in May and 
June. They build in June, making their nests 
in holes in dead trees, as high as they can get, and 
lay four or five eggs. The nest is made of 
feathers and soft hair. I am pretty sure their 
nesting-holes are excavated in the soft wood bv 

/ 

VOL. II. L 



146 WESTEKN MEADOW LARK. 

themselves ; although their soft purple beak ap- 
pears ill-adapted to perform such labour, although 
the wood, being soft from decay, easily crumbles. 
They assemble in large flocks before migrating 
in September. 

WESTERN MEADOW LARK (Sturnetta neglecta, 
Aud.). After being shut up, and closely impri- 
soned by the bitter cold and deep snows of a 
North-western winter, one hails with delight the 
first heralds, announcing the prospect of speedy 
relief sunshine and summer. The meadow- 
larks (or starlings, more correctly) are amongst the 
earliest arrivals, making their appearance in the 
interior of British Columbia, before the snow has 
begun to thaw even from the roofs of the log-huts. 

Their custom, on first arriving, is to sit on the 
extreme tops of the sprays that project above 
the snow. The brilliant golden-yellow, decking 
their breasts, and the rich browns on the back 
and wings, are in such vivid contrast with the 
intense white on every side, that one is almost 
tempted to imagine some magi's hand had con- 
jured gorgeous blossoms on the leafless sticks; 
until the mellow plaintive songs, pealing over the 
wintry waste, tells you that life is there, with 
hope and confidence in coming events. Leaves, 
flowers, grass, insects, all are missing, still the 



FLYCATCHER. 147 

birds know they are sure to come ; their instincts 
are true, and so they patiently await the change 
from bleak winter to genial spring, as joyous as 
if they had not quitted the sunny south. 

The nest is made, in a very careless manner, on 
the open prairie: a hollow is selected (the foot- 
print of a deer generally), in a sloping bank or 
knoll, and filled with dry grass-stalks, not woven 
together but laid one on another, like hens' nests 
are made with straw ; sometimes, though not 
invariably, a few hairs are laid on the grass- 
stalks, but with no attempt at definite arrange- 
ment. Five or six eggs are laid early in June ; 
after nesting, young and old flock together, until 
their departure in September. They are generally 
distributed throughout British Columbia, extend- 
ing north to Sitka, and farther for aught I know ; 
they are plentiful also on Vancouver Island, and 
on all the islands in the Gulf of Georgia. 

TOWNSEND'S FLYCATCHER (Myiadestes Town- 
sendii, Cabanis). I met with these rare birds 
once only, and then at Colville. It was towards the 
end of November ; deep snow was on the ground, 
all the leaves had fallen, and the cold was intense. 
My attention was first attracted by hearing a low 
sweet song, not unlike that of our English song-- 

<_>' O O 

thrush, which at this time of year was a most 

L 2 



148 AMERICAN RAVEN. 

unusual sound. On looking round, I saw about 
twenty of these birds perched on the top sprays 
of some white-thorn bushes. In their mode of 
darting off and returning again to the spray, 
they put me in mind of the shrike. I shot six 
of them, and could detect no material difference 
in plumage between males and females ; in the 
stomachs of those I opened were the remains of 
some small coleopterous insects and a few haws. 
They left the next day, and I never saw them 



again. 



AMERICAN RAVENS (Corvus carnivorus, Bar- 
tram). Ravens are distributed all over North- 
western America, in every part of British 
Columbia, from the Rocky Mountains to the sea- 
coast on Vancouver Island, and all the others in 
the Gulf of Georgia. In the forests by the rivers 
and lakes, on the prairies or in the swamps, 
ravens are always in waiting, to demolish anything 
they can find dead, or to slay the weak and helpless. 
Their migration is simply from the inland, dur- 
ing winter, to the seacoast. A dozen or two 

O ' 

remained at oar headquarters at Colville during 
the winter, contrary to their habits induced to 
linger in order to feed on the offal from our 
slaughtering-yard. In summer they are habitu- 
ally shy, and very watchful against any chance 



BULLOCK'S ORIOLE. 149 

of surprise ; but deep snow, and a temperature 
32 below zero, so tamed them, that they came 
down on the bullocks as the men were skinning 
them, and, though again and again knocked off, 
refused to leave until they had a bit given them : 
luckily for the ravens, the men had a superstitious 
dread of doing them an injury, so that they 
had only to fight it out with the dogs and Indian 
women, as to right of offals. 

The nest is built of sticks, and placed on the 
veiy summit of the tallest pine-trees they can 
find. They build very early in May, and usually 
have two broods in the year. The same pair of 
ravens use their old nest, simply repairing the 
damage done by wind and weather. I have seen 
them so gorged with dead mules' flesh as to be 
unable to fly into a tree ; flapping their wings, to 
aid in hopping the faster, they scrambled into the 
bushes in a most undignified manner, too full even 
to croak. They seldom lay more than two eggs. 

BULLOCK'S ORIOLE (Icterus buttockii,Ronap.). 
This is the only representative of the orioles in 
British Columbia, and by no means abundant, or 
often seen by visitors. These birds prefer the 
localities where the scrub-oak grows to the pine 
region, and build a long pendulous nest, beauti- 
fully woven of fibrous roots and grass-stalks, 



150 BKEWER'S BLACKBIRD. 

suspending it from the point of an oak-branch, 
without any attempt whatever at concealment. 
The nest may frequently be seen dangling like a 
jelly-bag drying. I have previously given an ac- 
count of a tree covered with their nests which I 
saw on the Shasta plains. From five to six eggs 
are laid in June. I have never seen the oriole 
north of the Eraser river, and but rarely east of 
the Cascades. A few stragglers visited our 
quarters in the Colville valley, which arrived late 
in May and left early in September, the males 
usually preceding the females by three or four 
days. 

BREWER'S BLACKBIRD, OR WESTERN GRACKLE 
(Scolecophagus cyanocephalns, Cuvier). A rare 
bird, I should say, in British Columbia. I have 
seen a few at Vancouver Island, in the yards where 
cattle are fed, and a small number frequented 
our mule-camp on the Sumass prairie. East of 
the Cascades I saw them only at Colville, where a 
small flock wintered in a settler's cow-yard. 
They appear to have a great liking to be near 
animals, arising, I presume, from their finding 
more food and insects there than elsewhere. 
They walk between the bullocks' legs, perch on 
their backs, deftly turning over the hair in search 
of parasitic pests, which they nip with their forcep- 



THE WHISKY JACK. 151 

like beaks, much to the tough-skinned ruminant's 
delight. 

It was pleasant to watch an old ox with three 
or four of the blackbirds on his back, busy turn- 
ing over the hairs with their beaks : the bullock, 
slowly shutting and opening his great watery 
eyes, rolling round his cud, and giving little grunts 
of delight, seemed to enjoy the tickling sensation 
(I am not sure that he knew what his feathered 
friends were doing for his good), as much as if a 
modern barber was brushing his hair by ma- 
chinery. I never saw the nests of these birds, 
but think they build in holes in the walls, or 
rocks, if walls are not to be found. 

CANADA JAY, OR WHISKY JACK (Perisoreus 
Canadensis, Bonap.). This and ' Steller's Jay' 
are the only representatives of the jay family in 
British Columbia. So familiar and confiding in 
its habits is this plain little ash-coloured bird, and 
at the same time so fond of being near the habi- 
tations of man, that Canadian settlers and gold- 
miners of the North-west style it the Whisky 
Jack, never harm it, and say that wherever man 
goes, Whisky and Whisky Jacks invariably 
follow. In cold weather I have seen poor little 
jack hop by the fire, perch himself on a log, ruff 
up his feathers, and warm himself as fearlessly as 



152 SONG OF THE REDPOLE. 

if he had been reared and tamed in a shanty; 
hopping round on the look-out for crumbs, he 
slants his head, and looks so beseechingly with 
his glittering grey eyes, that he must have a 
hard cruel heart who could refuse such an appeal 
for a stray morsel, or injure trustful little jack. 
Indian children are their greatest enemies ; they 
never wilfully kill them, but iteaze the poor little 
fellows, until they die from sheer worry. 

This jay has an immense distribution, extend- 
ing from Vancouver Island through British 
Columbia, crossing the Rocky Mountains, and 
ranging down the eastern slopes into Canada ; it 
is found also throughout the Northern United 
States. Its nest is, much like that of other jays, 
built generally in a close bush. Four to seven 
eggs are the usual number laid. They winter 
throughout British Columbia and in Vancouver 
Island. 

LESSEE, REDPOLE (^Egiothus linaria, Ca- 
banis). Rather a rare bird in British Columbia; 
it frequents swampy places, where the alders grow 
thickly, and large hollow- stalked water-plants 
flourish. To these it clings, and swinging, as if 
performing a trapeze feat, pecks away at the seed- 
pods, and searching the flowers if there are any 
remaining, gobbles up any beetles that may have 



A BRILLIANT FINCH. 153 

therein taken refuge. The song is a pretty soft 
warble, that comes in bursts, as if in joyous praise 
of some unusually fortunate capture ; the singer 
perching itself boldly on the top of a plant, to be 
the more plainly heard by its companions. In early 
spring the redpoles feed right-royally, the long 
pollen-dusted catkins of the alder and hazel being 
much relished. I never saw its nest, though I 
repeatedly searched for it. They winter in small 
flocks in Vancouver Island, at its southern 
extremity. 

THE LAZULI FINCH (Cyanospiza amcena, 
Baird).--This gaily-plumaged little bird, one of 
the ' painted sparrows,' visits Vancouver Island 
and British Columbia early in the summer, 
arriving at the Island in May, and rather later 
east of the Cascades. The colours of the male 
are nearly as brilliant as the gemlike humming- 
birds, the feathers having a similar metallic 
lustre a brilliancy rendered the more con- 
spicuous by contrast with the flowerless shrubs it 
usually frequents. The song is feeble, and only 
now and then indulged in by the male, to cheer 
his more sombre partner during incubation. 

The nest is round, and open at the top, com- 
posed of various materials turned and worked 
together, lined with hair, and placed in a low 



154 OREGON GROUND ROBIN. 

bush, usually by the side of a stream. Five 
eggs is the number generally laid. 

OREGON GROUND ROBIN (Pepilo oregonus, 
Bell). This quaint restless bird is very abundant, 
from the coast to the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains, and is also very common on Vancouver 
Island. They arrive in April and May, and fre- 
quent dark woods 1 and thick tangled underbrush. 
Stealthy and shy, its habit is to hide, but a love 
of hearing its own ugly voice invariably betrays 
the place of concealment. The cry for it is not a 
song, but something like the squall of the cat-bird 
conies from the most unlikely places, often 
startling one into a momentary belief in ghouls 
and wood demons. I found a nest, after days of 
tiresome waiting and watching ; it was placed on 
the top of a stump, round which young shoots 
had grown like a fringe, completely hiding it from 
the sharpest eye ; the birds descended to it 
through the twigs, that formed a vegetable tube. 
Not a neat nest, but clumsily put together with 
varied materials, lined with hair, and in it six 



eggs. 



GREY-CROWNED FINCH (Leucosticte teplirocotis, 
Swainson). My first acquaintance with this very 
rare and beautiful bird was made on the summit 
of the Cascade Mountains, on a hill we named 



GKEY-CKOWNED FINCH. 155 

Ptarmigan Hill, because these grouse were so very 
plentiful on it. It was late in October, and we 
were hurrying back to winter-quarters, hourly 
expecting the first fall of snow. I observed 
a flock of nine or ten birds pecking along 
the ground, much as larks feed; the more I 
looked at them, the more I was puzzled to 
imagine what birds they could be, at such an 
altitude, so late in the year. To settle the matter 
I fired in amongst them, and picked up three a 
female, and two males in splendid plumage. I 
tried for more, but never saw them again on the 
Cascades. 

In July, in the following summer, I was on 
the summit of the Rocky Mountains, near the 
Kootanie Pass, and again saw these beautiful 
birds feeding on the ground. I shot several, 
but all of them were young birds of the year, 
barely fledged, or badly-plumaged old ones. 
Hence there can be no doubt these finches breed 
on the Cascades and Rocky Mountains, in both 
about the same altitude, 7,000 feet above the sea- 
level. They are very late migrants, or they 
winter on the mountains; although I hardly 
think they could bear the cold, or find a suffi- 
ciency of food, the winter being very severe, and 
the snow three feet and more in depth. 



156 ROUTE TO THE SUMMIT CAMP. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ROUTE TO THE SUMMIT CAMP SPOKAN PLAINS FEARFUL DE- 
STRUCTION OF HORSES SYNIAKWATEEN (OR 'THE CROSSING') 

A BUTTERFLY ASSEMBLAGE THE FOX-SPARROW GOATSUCKERS 

THE OSPRET REDSTART LOUISIANA TANAGER DUSKY 

GROUSE FRANKLIN'S GROUSE RUFFED GROUSE HARRIS'S 

WOODPECKER GAIRDNER'S WOODPECKER WHITE-HEADED 

WOODPECKER THREE-TOED WOODPECKER LOG-COCK LEWIS'S 

WOODPECKER A NEW CICADA (CICADA OCCIDENTALIS). 

THE routes travelled by our various working- 
parties in order to reach the Summit Camp- 
situated on the Rocky Mountains, and the termi- 
nation of the half of the Boundary Line we were 
commissioned to mark (the other half, east of 
the Rocky Mountains, the terminal point of which 
is at the Lake of the Woods, still remains un- 
marked) ran in a southerly direction. This 
deviation from a more direct course was necessi- 
tated in consequence of impassable barriers of 
mountains, so closely piled and wooded, that the 
valleys between them were little else than rocky 
gorges, devoid of grass or other food for packed 
animals. Following the Colville valley for some 
distance, and thence through a sparsely-wooded 



SPOKAN PLAINS. 157 

country we reach the Spokan plains, which are 
open grassy wastes, very like the barren grounds 
we travelled through from Walla- walla to Colville. 

The Spokan Indians live principally on these 
plains, Gerry being their chief. Gerry speaks 
very understandable English, which he picked up 
whilst acting as guide to Sir George Simpson. 
This large tribe has been awfully crippled by 
Colonel Wright, previously spoken of as com- 
manding the United States troops at Walla- 
walla. The Indians made a cowardly attack on 
some unarmed dragoons exercising their horses, 
killed several men, and stole all the horses. 
Colonel Wright, in retaliation, marched into their 
stronghold, and after a brisk skirmish, routed 
them, taking several of the leaders prisoners, and 
with them a celebrated chief. These were all 
hung where the fight took place. Then all the 
Indian horses that could be collected were driven 
together by order of the Colonel and shot ; 700 
were thus killed ; three days were occupied in 
shooting the poor beasts down. I state the fact 
as it was told me. 

Branching off in a north-easterly direction, the 
trail leads through a thickly- wooded country to 
the Pend Oreille river, where our depot, Syniak- 
wateen (Indian, the ' crossing :' vide illustration), 



Io8 SYNIAKWATEEN. 

was situated. The scenery is picturesque beyond 
description; densely wooded on each side, the 
river winds its way through a series of grassy 
banks, flat and verdant as English meadows. 
In June these grass-flats are flooded by the melt- 
ing snows, and for a short time the river assumes 
the appearance of a lovely lake. The Indians en 
route to the Buffalo plains, east of the Rocky 
Mountains, cross the Pend Oreille at this its 
narrowest neck hence the name, Syniakwateen. 
The place is a perfect paradise for the lesser 
migrants: sunny, sheltered, and abounding in 
insects and flowers, the birds live sumptuously, 
and find in the forest-trees and shrubby under- 
brush every variety of site for building purposes. 
Few more wonderful displays of brilliant colour- 
ing can be imagined than an assemblage of but- 
terflies. ' Knights ' and ' chevaliers' have a habit, 
in North and North-western America, of pitching 
together on the ground, choosing damp bare 
places for their gatherings; many hundreds of 
these brilliantly-coloured insects might be seen 
every day on these meadow-like river-banks, out- 
vying in variety of tints any grouping of flowers 
the most skilful gardener could produce. For 
what purpose they thus congregate I am at a loss 
to imagine. 



INSECT-CATCHING BIRDS. 159 

Here I first saw the Fox Sparrow (Passeretta 
Townsendii, Nuttall). This sparrow is not, how- 
ever, uncommon in dark swampy places east of the 
Cascades. It is remarkable as possessing a most 
singular habit that of scratching dead leaves or 
decayed material of any sort with its feet, exactly 
as do barndoor fowls sending the dirt right, left, 
and behind; it picks up seeds, insects, larvae, or 
anything eatable that it digs out, and then goes 
on scraping for more. The long and unusually 
strong claws with which this bird is provided 
seem particularly well adapted to this unsparrow- 
like mode of earning a living. If one waits quietly 
in a dark swamp, in a few minutes the ' scratch, 
scratch' of several of these birds is pretty sure to 
be heard from under the tangle of fallen timber. 

From daylight until dark Goatsuckers wing 
their way in mazy circles, like nights of gnats 
on summer evenings more than insect-catch- 
ing birds so very numerous are they at this 
favoured locality. The continuous ' pisk, pisk,' 
and sudden booming roar they make whilst fly- 
ing, is heard in every direction high in the air, 
and close to one's ear. They have various names 
given them, such as 

NIGHT HAWK BULL BAT MOSQUITO HAWK 
the GOATSUCKEE (Chordeiles popetue, Vieill) of 



160 THE GOATSUCKEE. 

zoologists. I have met with only one well-marked 
species from the coast to the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains. They arrive at Vancouver Island 
and along the coast in May, and at Colville' in 
June. On the 7th of June I observed a great 
number of these goatsuckers in company with 
what I imagined to be the Black Swift, but as they 
never came within range I could not determine 
the matter. I succeeded in getting one goat- 
sucker, a male; its stomach was gorged with 
winged ants; a flight of these insects had, as I 
imagine, attracted these birds. 

When flying high the goatsucker makes a 
curious kind of chirp hence the name by which 
they are known throughout Oregon and Cali- 
fornia, as Pisk ; and when they swoop down, as 
they constantly do, from a great height, they 
make a loud booming noise, almost like a roar, 
or the twang of a large metal harp-string whence 
I suppose comes the other name, Bull Bat. 

I have noticed them 7,000 feet above the sea- 
level, both on the Cascades and the Rocky Moun- 
tains. They lay two eggs in July, on the bare 
ground. They have a curious habit of pitching on 
the ground just as it is getting dark, and running 
along like a sandpiper, chasing moths and small 
insects. I have often seen them pitch close to 
my feet. 



AMERICAN OSPREY. 161 

Sitting on a tree overhanging the river, or 
soaring gracefully high in the clear atmosphere, 
the Osprey or Fishing Eagle may be seen at all 
times. 

THE AMERICAN OSPREY (Pandion carolinensis, 
Gmelin) is found on nearly every river and 
lake from the coast to the west slope of the Rocky 
Mountains; it is also quite as plentiful on the 
lakes and streams in Vancouver Island. They 
quit the streams inland on the approach of severe 
winter weather, and retire to the coast or go 
south. The nest of the osprey is a most con- 
spicuous object, and can be seen from a long- 
distance; it is invariably built on the extreme 
summit of a dead pine-tree, made of dry sticks, 
and in size as large an an imperial bushel. 

The ospreys use the same nest year after year ; 
the number of young is usually three. There 
was a particularly large nest in the centre of a 
small prairie through which the trail ran, leading 
from Sumass to the Chilukweyuk prairie : it was 
placed on the top of a dead pine-tree that was at 
least 150 feet high, and as straight and bare of 
branches as a flagstaff; at the base of the tree 
the trail forked, the other trail leading to Sweltza ; 
the turn-off was known as the Eagle's Nest. 
I shot two, a male and female, in August, on the 

VOL. II. M 



162 REDSTART AND TANAGER. 

stump of a dead tree hanging over the Kootanie 
river, feeling desirous to obtain specimens from 
that locality. Specimens were also obtained 
at Sumass, Vancouver Island, and Colville, and 
there can be no doubt there is but one species 
common to the entire district. 

THE REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla, Swainson). 
This exquisite little bird, more like a tropical 
sea-shell than a feathered songster, I met 
twice only in my rambles once at this place, 
and again in the Colville valley ; both were males, 
and in full nuptial plumage. From its extreme 
scarcity I am disposed to think it is only an 
occasional visitor to the eastern slopes of the 
Cascades, the ridge being its boundary north- 
wards. The birds I obtained were shot in July. 

LOUISIANA TANAGER (Pyranga ludoviciana, 
Bonap.). I never saw this bird west of the 
Cascade Mountains ; it arrives here and at Colville 
in June. Male birds are first seen. On ar- 
riving, they perch on the tops of the highest 
pine-trees, and continually utter a low piercing 
chirp. Soon after they pair, and disappear into 
the forest. Where these birds build I cannot 
imagine ; I have sought high and low for the nest, 
but never succeeded in finding it. I am inclined 
to think they must build on the tops of the very 
loftiest pine -trees ; they leave again in September, 



DUSKY GROUSE. 163 

but never assemble in flocks. Its range is south 
through Oregon and California ; how far north of 
Colville I had no means of finding out. 

The Dusky and Franklin's Grouse are con- 
stant articles of daily food to us, being abundant 
throughout this district. 

THE DUSKY GROUSE (Tetrao obscurus, Say 
figured and described by Sir John Richardson, 
' F. B. A.') is found principally on the western side 
of the Rocky Mountains. It arrives at Van- 
couver Island, at Nesqually, and along the banks 
of the Fraser river about the end of March and 
beginning of April. The male bird, on its first 
arrival, sits on the summit of a tall pine-tree, or 
on a rock, announcing his arrival by a kind of 
lovesong a sort of booming noise repeated at 
short intervals, and so deceptive that I have often 
stood under the tree where the bird was perched, 
and imagined the sound some distance away. It 
is extremely difficult to see this bird when you 
know it is in the tree, so much does it resemble a 
knob or the end of a dead branch. Soon after 
their arrival they pair, but during the whole 
nesting-time the male continues the booming 
noise. The young are a good size in August, 
but never afford much sport, as they pitch in the 
trees immediately after being flushed. 

M 2 



164 FRANKLIN'S GROUSE. 



Between the Cascades and Rocky Mountains 
this larger grouse seems to be replaced by, if not 
a distinct species, a very well-marked variety. In 
size it is a trifle smaller, but the great mark of 
distinction is the entire absence of the white 
band at the end of the tail. Finding, however, 
in some mature birds a trace of white, I hesitate 
as to making it a new species. The young 
nestlings, eggs, and mature male and female 
birds, from east of the Cascades, are in the 
British Museum, as well as others from the west 
or coast slope. In habits, periods of arrival and 
departure (or perhaps appearance and disappear- 
ance would be the more correct expressions), the 
two species or varieties are in every respect 
similar. Where they go during the winter I 
cannot imagine ; the Indians say they go to sleep 
in the pine-trees. I do not think they migrate, 
but only retire into the very thickest trees, and, 
living on the fronds, pass the winter thus sheltered 
in the bush. 

FRANKLIN'S GROUSE (Tetrao fraiiklinii, Doug- 
las). I believe this bird is but rarely found west 
of the Cascades ; but on the eastern side, and along 
the whole district lying between the Cascades 
and Rocky Mountains, it is tolerably abundant, 
always keeping in the mountains, often as high as 



HARRIS' WOODPECKER. 165 

7,000 feet above the sea-level. It is the most 
stupid bird imaginable: when five or six are 
flushed together, they fly up into the nearest pine- 
tree, and there sit ; throw sticks and stones at 
them, until you are tired, and they scorn to be 
frightened. I have often shot one or two in a 
tree where others were sitting, without their 
attempting to fly away. They remain in the 
deep woods and sheltered places during the 
winter, and feed on the leaves of the pine-tree. 
They begin nesting in May, and in proceeding 
from Colville to the Eocky Mountains I saw lots 
of chickens in June and July not long from the 
nest. I do not think these birds pair, in the 
strict sense of the word; but from the large 
number of females compared to males, I am dis- 
posed to think they are polygamists. I never 
succeeded in obtaining the eggs, but the mature 
birds and chickens are set up in the British 
Museum. 

It may be as well to mention here the different 
woodpeckers common in the pine-forests, open 
timbered lands, and shrubby brush surrounding 
the lakes and prairies both east and west of the 
Cascades : 

HARRIS' WOODPECKER (Picus harrisii, Aud.). 
This woodpecker is by far the most abundant 



166 GAIRDNER'S AND WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER. 

species in the district. It is found on Vancouver 
Island, and along the entire course of the Boun- 
dary-line, south through Oregon and California, 
north to Fort Simpson : a few remain at Colville 
during the winter, but the greater number retire 
to the coast, and return in April and May. In 
May they pair, and bore out a hole in a dead tree ; 
they use no lining for the nest, but lay the eggs 
on the bare wood. Their favourite haunt is on 
the stumps of trees growing round swamps or 
prairie-land. 

GAIRDNER'S WOODPECKER (Picus gairdneri, 
Aud.). The same remarks apply to this wood- 
pecker as to the preceding, Picus liarrisii. It dif- 
fers slightly in habit, generally hunting for insects 
on the maples, alders, and stunted oaks rather 
than on the pine-trees. Specimens of both species 
were shot on Vancouver Island, Sumass prairie, 
Colville, and west slope of the Rocky Mountains, 
at an altitude of 7,000 feet above the sea-level. 

WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER (Picus albolar- 
vatus, Baird). The only place I ever saw this 
very rare bird was in the open timbered country 
about the Colville valley and Spokan river; why 
it should be confined to such a limited area I am 
somewhat at a loss to imagine, except it be that 
this woodpecker almost invariably haunts the 



THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. 167 

Pinus ponderosa, and never retires into the thick 
damp forest. It arrives in small numbers at Col- 
ville in April, and disappears again in October 
and November, or as soon as the snow begins to 
fall. Although I did not succeed in obtaining 
its eggs, I saw in the month of May a pair nesting 
in a hole bored in the branch of a very tall pine- 
tree (Pinus ponder osa). This bird seldom flies 
far, but darts from tree to tree with a short 
jerking flight, and always whilst flying utters a 
sharp, clear, chirping cry. The specimens sent 
home were shot in the Colville valley. 

BLACK -BACKED THREE -TOED WOODPECKER 
(Picoides arcticus, Swainson). I obtained this 
bird once only ; it was on the summit of the Cas- 
cade Mountains. It was late in September, and 
getting cold ; the bird was alone, and flying rest- 
lessly from tree to tree, but not searching for in- 
sects. Both when on the wing and when clinging 
against a tree, it continually utters a shrill plain- 
tive cry. Its favourite tree appears to be the 
Pinus contorta, which grows at great altitudes. 
I do not think this woodpecker is found except 
on the hill- tops. In the valleys and lower 
plains it is replaced by the Banded Three-toed 
Woodpecker (Picoides hirsutus), 

LOG COCK (Hylatomus pileatus, Baird.). Not 



168 LOG COCK AND LEWIS' WOODPECKER. 

often seen, and difficult to obtain from its shy 
habits, always hiding in the dark pine-forests, 
the silence of which is often broken by the tre- 
mendous noise this bird makes, rapping on the 
dead trees. It has a wide range common east 
and west of the Cascades, and on the west slope 
of the Rocky Mountains ; I have seen it north as 
far as Fort Rupert (Vancouver Island), and south 
through Oregon and California. Whether they 
migrate south I do not know, but I obtained them 
at Colville during the winter. Nests in May, 
generally in a tall dead pine-tree at a great 
height. 

LEWIS' WOODPECKER (Melanerpes torquatus, 
Bonap.). Not found, as far as I know, west of the 
Cascades, but is very abundant between the 
Cascades and the Rocky Mountains ; it here 
frequents the open timber. Its habits and modes 
of flight are not the least like a woodpecker's ; it 
flies with a heavy flapping motion, much like a 
jay, feeds a great deal on the ground, and chases 
insects on the wing like a shrike or king- 
bird. Whilst mating they assemble in large 
numbers, and keep up a continual loud chatter- 
ing noise ; they arrive at Colville in April, begin 
nesting in May, and leave again in October. 
The nest is in a hole in a dead pine-tree, usually 



CICADA. 169 

a great height from the ground ; the eggs brought 
home were obtained at Colville. 

Striking in among the trees, and following on 
a trail for about a quarter of a mile from our log- 
house, I came suddenly on an open glade (or more 
aptly, perhaps, I may compare it to a meadow), 
such as one often stumbles on in Devonshire. 

The grass was green, and peeping out in all 
directions were wild flowers of various species. 
A tiny stream, clear as crystal, twisted its way 
in many a bend and turn through this fairy spot. 
No human voice had ever, perhaps, disturbed the 
silence of this unusually solitary glen ; but the 
song and twitter of birds, and the buzz and hum 
of insect life, told at once that flower and tree 
were alike inhabited. 

But there was one sound song, perhaps, I may 
venture to call it that was clearer, shriller, and 
more singularly tuneful than any other. It never 
appeared to cease, and it came from everywhere 
from the tops of the trees, from the trembling 
leaves of the cottonwood, from the stunted 
underbrush, from the flowers, the grass, the 
rocks and boulders nay, the very stream itself 
seemed vocal with hidden minstrels, all ch aunt- 
ing the same refrain. It was the first time I 
had heard this song in these wilds ; and although 



170 A FOKEST MINSTREL. 

I had not yet caught sight of the singer, I knew 
that it must be a cicada. I soon pounced upon 
the singular little vocalist, and captured him in 
his native orchestra. He was a handsome little 
fellow, with large bright shining eyes, wings like 
the most delicate lace, coloured green, like the 
leaves it loves to sit on, its body clothed in scales 
like fairy armour. It turned out to be an en- 
tirely new species, and now figures in the British 
Museum as Cicada occidentalis. 

The genus Cicada is found in all the temperate 
and warm countries of the globe ; some of them 
are nocturnal revellers, others, as our friend, sing- 
ing only in the daytime. They were celebrated 
among the Greeks, who often kept them in cages 
for the sake of their song. They believed the 
cicacla3 lived on dew, and regarded them as al- 
most divine. It was the nightingale of the 
nymphs. Anacreon, hearing the cicada, says, 
' The Muses love thee ; Phoebus himself loves 
thee, and has given thee a shrill song ; old age 
does not wear thee out ; thou art wise, earthborn, 
musical, impassive, without blood; thou art al- 
most a god ! ' 

The Athenian ladies wore golden cicadas in 
their hair, and it was used as the head-piece of 
the ancient harp. The following fable will, per- 



VOICELESS WIVES. 171 

haps, account for it: Eunomus and Ariston, two 
rival musicians, were contending against each 
other; each played the harp, and it was hard to 
say which was the better player, when ' crack' 
went one of the strings of Eunomus' harp. A 
cicada at once pitched on the top of the instru- 
ment and supplied the want of the broken string, 
and so effectually that Eunomus was declared the 
victor. 

But the male Cicada has a shadow to cloud the 
bright sunshine of his happiness ; a sad and sorry 
misfortune, I am afraid all my lady-readers will 
say, and I quite agree with them. The gentler 
sex, the Ladies Cicada3, are all, without an ex- 
ception, dumb. Some crabbed old Greek, evi- 
dently a bachelor or henpecked husband, has 
dared to say (I believe he was called Anaxagoras), 

Happy the cicadas' lives 

Since they have all voiceless vrives ! 

Well, if she does not waste all her day in singing 
and scolding, she attends to her duty as a mother ; 
and, whilst her idle husband carols his simple 
ballad, she is busy depositing hundreds of eggs 
in the branch of a tree. 

Admirably adapted to its purpose is the oviposi- 
tor of the female cicada ! A borer of the most 



172 LIVES ON DEW. 

delicate structure, edged with a kind of saw or 
file-like apparatus, enables her to make a slit in 
the bark of a tree, into which the eggs are dropped. 
The eggs are white, somewhat oval, and quite flat, 
so as to pack neatly into the slit. The larva is an 
ugly little monster, with six legs, and a soft body 
of a dirty-yellow colour. Two years of his life are 
passed away in the earth, and the time arrives 
when the dark damp tunnels are to be abandoned; 
then from a creeping grub he changes into a 
winged denizen of the air, and with his voiceless 
mate spends a short but merry life, in ceaseless 
exultant jubilee. 

That the cicada lives on dew is not by any 
means a poet's fancy. Having assumed the 
winged form, it loses the scissor-like mouth, that 
served its purpose admirably in the subterranean 
home for nipping up fine root-fibres, and has in 
its place a kind of sucker-like snout, with which 
it sucks up the juices of flowers and the sweet 
sap that exudes from the bark of trees. Happy 
as his life appears to be, he has many terrible 
enemies to encounter during the two months of 
his perfect existence. The brilliant oriole, in his 
gorgeous livery of orange-and-black, hunts for him 
under leaves and in the grass; and spying him 
out, nips him with its sharp beak, and descending 



A MUSICAL INSTKUMENT. 173 

to the ground picks him to pieces, and, like a 
dainty epicure, swallows only the choicest bits ; 
the Louisiana tanager, flashing like a gem in the 
golden sunshine, seizes on him and gobbles him 
up bodily; crafty woodpeckers and stealthy 
prying little flycatchers pounce upon him in the 
midst of his song, and end his life ere yet it has 
well begun. It shows us how wise is Creative 
Wisdom in endowing these harmless little insects 
with such vast powers of reproduction ! If one 
female only succeeds in safely depositing her eggs, 
at least seven hundred larvas are produced ; and 
may it not be that, being voiceless, she is less likely 
to be discovered than the male? 

The structure of the apparatus with which the 
males execute their long-continued, shrill, monoto- 
nous music is most singular, and well worth 
investigation. It is a sort of compound instru- 
ment, between a banjo and a violin, consisting of 
two membranes tightly stretched, and acted on 
by powerful muscles ; the sound issues from two 
holes near the insertion of the hind-legs. The 
intensity of the sound produced varies in differ- 
ent species, dependant in a great measure on the 
size of the instrument. One species, found in 
Surinam, produces such ringing tones from his 
musical apparatus, as to be distinctly heard at a 



174 BORING TOOLS. 

mile distance hence he has obtained the name of 
'the harper' (Herman). Virgil says the Italian 
cicada burst the very shrubs with the noise they 
make : 

Et cantu querulse rumpent arbusta cicadse. 

I was curious to watch the female depositing her 
eggs. She first clasps the branch both sides with 
her legs, and with the end of the file very care- 
fully slits up the bark ; then, placing the instrument 
longitudinally, files away until she has obtained 
sufficient length and breadth. The small teeth 
of the files are now used crosswise of this fissure, 
until a trench is made in the soft pith. When 
large enough, slowly down the groove in the 
centre of the instrument glides a small pearly 
egg, pointed at both ends, and so transparent 
that the little grub within is easily discernible. 
Gently she lays it within its bed, and then drops 
a thin gummy material on it, to secure it from 
moisture. This finished, she proceeds to deposit 
another, and so on, until a sufficient number are 
produced to fill the fissure ; then over all she drags 
the everted bark. It is easy to perceive where 
the cicada has been concealing her brood, by the 
elevation on the branch. In this manner she 
deposits about seven hundred eggs, going from 



A CUEIOUS PROOF OF INSTINCT. 175 

branch to branch, her marvellous instinct teach- 
ing her to select the most suitable wood for the 
purpose. The time occupied in constructing each 
nest was from fifteen to twenty minutes. Her 
earthly mission finished, she drops, fainting and 
exhausted, from the branch, and dies. 

The male, who is always trilling his refrain, 
goes on indifferent, or unconscious, that the task 
of his faithful spouse is finished, singing ever, un- 
til his time comes then he, too, drops beside her. 
Thus the songs, one by one, cease not only the 
cicada's, but all the forest choir and give place 
to the winter blasts, that sigh in mournful music 
through the leafless trees. These winds tear 
from the trees the decaying branches, which the 
instinct of the insect proclaimed were dying 
months previously. From the nests that are in 
these fallen branches, it is easy for the grub, the 
larva of the cicada, to burv itself in the earth, its 

/ 

future home ; but those that come out whilst the 
branch remains on the tree, have to make a 
perilous descent. Fifty to sixty days from the 
time the eggs were deposited, there emerged an 
ugly little yellowish grub, covered with soft hair, 
lively and bustling; with pinkish eyes, and with 
feet armed with claws ; if on the tree, they rushed 
directly to the end of the branch, and, without 



176 AN ENTREE OF CICADAS. 

any apparent fear, precipitated themselves reck- 
lessly to the ground, where, without loss of time, 
they commenced digging. Their forelegs, shaped 
somewhat after the fashion of a mole's, enable 
them to turn up the ground with great expedi- 
tion, ten to twelve seconds being long enough for 
one to get entirely out of sight. How long they 
remain in the larvas condition I am unable to say. 
An Athenian banquet, without an entree of 
cicadas, was deemed as great a failure as would 
be, in these days, a Greenwich feast without 
whitebait. The larvas and pupaa were esteemed 
the greater dainties, but a female full of eggs, 
artistically browned, and served up hot and juicy, 
was a bonne-bouche the Greek epicure well knew 
how to estimate. Even Aristotle thought the 
dish a luscious one, ' quo tempore gusta suavissima 
suntj and at the present time cicadse are regularly 
sold in the markets of South America. The legs 
and wings are stripped off, and the body of the 
insect slowly dried in the sun. When sufficiently 
dry, it is powdered, and made into a kind of 
cake, and in that form sold and eaten. 



177 



CHAPTER IX. 

FROM SYNIAKWATEEN TO THE PACK RIVER FROM PACK RIVER 

TO THE KOOTANIE THE TOBACCO PLAINS HUDSON'S BAY 
COMPANY'S TRADING-POST THE KOOTANIE INDIANS A KOO- 
TANIE CANOE THE GALTON EANGE AND FLATHEAD RIVER 

THE MOOSE DEER WAPITI OR OREGON ELK CARIBOU 

VIRGINIAN DEER WHITE-TAILED DEER BLACK-TAILED DEER 

MULE DEER THE ASCENT OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS CAMP 

IN THE GLEN YELLOW-HAIRED PORCUPINE SAY'S STRIPED 

SQUIRREL PINUS CONTORTA ROCK PTARMIGAN THE MOUNTAIN 

GOAT THE BIGHORN AND ROCK-WHISTLER. 

LEAVING Syniakwateen, the trail runs through 
twenty-five miles of dark, gloomy, grassless 
forest, until reaching the Pack river, a small 
stream, except in the flood-time : from this river 
to the Kootanie, the trees are less thickly 
clustered. 

In the Kootanie valley there is an abundance of 
grass ; we crossed the river at its south-eastern 
bend, to reach the Tobacco plains, a gravelly waste, 
the grass on it at this time (July) completely 
dried into hay by the sun. A small trading-post 
of the Hudson's Bay Company stands near the 
crossing, occupied by one trader, who obtains the 

VOL. II. X 



178 THE KOOTANIE INDIANS. 

peltries' undressed skins, trapped by the Kootanie 
Indians, a fine tribe owning large herds of cattle 
and a great number of horses. 

All the savages I saw wore small brass crosses 
suspended from their necks, and invariably made 
the sign of the cross on their breasts when they 
shook hands. Two Romish priests have been 
long resident in the Flathead country; these 
indefatigable men pay ' regular visits to the 
Kootanies, and from their teachings these out- 
ward signs of Christianity have been learned. 

Their canoes are of a most singular shape, 
not unlike the Kallispellem canoe shown in the 
illustration of Syniakwateen. They are made of 
a large sheet of bark, stripped from the spruce- 
fir, which is tightly sewn at both ends, but sloped 
to form a conical point. The length of the bot- 
tom of the one I measured was 12 feet, the 
width between the gunwales only ?J>- feet; the 
bark is supported on ribs of split wood, and 
gummed where there are any holes or weak 
places. 

When an Indian paddles it, he sits at the 
extreme end, and thus sinks the conical point, 
which serves to steady the canoe like a fish's 
tail, while the other is raised clea.r above the 
surface. They are more easily upset than any 



THE MOOSE. 179 

canoe I was ever in, but with skilled hands 
carry a fair-sized load, and pass rapidly over 
rather than through the water. 

The altitude of the Kootanie pass above the 
sea-level is about 2,100 feet. Crossing the 
lower corner of this immense valley, our trail 
led up to the Galton Mountains, a massive 
range dividing the Kootanie and Flat-head rivers, 
and attaining an altitude of quite 8,000 'feet 
above the sea-level. These mountains afford on 
their slopes admirable pasturage for horses and 
ruminants, being the favourite hunting-grounds 
of the Kootanies west of the Rocky Mountains. 

I may mention, incidentally, that buffalos 
never pass from the east to the west side of the 
Rocky Mountains; hence the Kootanies cross 
the Kootanie pass every summer to hunt on the 
plains east of the mountains, for buffalo-meat, 
and their skins called robes. This will be the 
best place to briefly describe the different 
species of deer I saw in British Columbia, or 
in Washington Territory, immediately adjoining 
it ; most of them, if not all, are to be found in 
the Kootanie country. 

THE MOOSE (Alee americanus, Jardine). I 
never obtained a specimen, neither did I ever 
see the moose-deer on the west side of the 

N 2 



180 THE MOOSE HUNTER. 

Rocky Mountains, but on a trail that leads over 
a sandy waste, just before descending into the 
valley of the Flathead river, I picked up several 
shed moose-antlers ; this was about 4,000 feet 
above the sea. Traders of the Hudson's Bay 
Company and Indians have also told me that 
moose are frequently killed on the western slope 
of the Rocky Mountains. I feel quite sure that 
the moose still inhabits the Galton range of 
mountains, and would be also found, if properly 
sought for, in the open timbered land at the base 
of the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. 

The district is well adapted to the habits of the 
moose : the ground irregular, and covered with 
an open forest-growth, in the hollows forms mossy 
swamps, in which grows an abundance of willow, 
the young shoots of which constitute the favou- 
rite food of the moose. A moose-hunter is ever 
watchful for cropped willow-branches or morsels 
of partially- chewed food, dropped as the animal 
walked along. A moose always walks on the 
very points of its toes, so that its track is in dots 
arranged in pairs, at a distance of three to four feet 
from each other. If the ground is very soft, the foot- 
prints are more like those of a wapiti, but a 
practised eye can tell the difference at a glance. 

As a rule, a hunter never follows directly on 



HOW TO TRACK A MOOSE. 181 

the track of a moose ; before it lies down, or stops 
to feed, it invariably doubles back on its own 
tracks, after going for some distance against the 
wind, so that anyone following would taint the 
wind, and in all probability pass the animal's 
hiding-place. Coming on the trail of a moose 
that has not been disturbed, the hunter makes a 
circuit, to cross the track some distance ahead : if 
he has a keen eye, he readily detects the dots as 
he crosses them at right-angles. If he does not 
find the tracks, he concludes the moose has 
doubled back ; by another circuit he returns to the 
track, and works up cautiously against the wind, 
until he discovers the hiding-place of the moose. 
Great care, and long practice too, is needed to enable 
a hunter to wind his way like a snake through 
the bushes, without cracking the dead branches. 
The flap of its great ear generally betrays the 
moose; large as the animal is, a hunter's rxractised 
eye can alone make it out when ensconced in 
its lair. 

The top of the antlers and flapping of the ears 
are usually the only guides to determine the 
position of the body : the spot to aim at fixed on 
in the hunter's mind, he fires into the bushes ; 
then follows a crash, as the animal either falls, 
mortally hit, or dashes away through the crackling 



182 THE WAPITI. 

timber. It is seldom an experienced hunter 
ventures to risk a shot when stalking, until within 
twenty yards of the moose. 

AMERICAN ELK* or WAPITI (Cervus canaden- 
sis, Exl.). This magnificent deer has a greater 
range, and is more widely and generally distri- 
buted, than any other deer in North-western 
America. It is found along the entire coast 
range from California to Sitka, on Vancouver 
Island, and on several of the islands in the Gulf 
of Georgia, on the east and west slopes of the 
Cascade Mountains, on the western slope of 
the Rocky Mountains, reaching an altitude in 
summer of 7,000 feet above the sea. I saw 
herds of these elks in the Klamath district; they 
grow to a large size in these rich pastures, at- 
taining a weight of from 500 to 700 pounds. 
The antlers are enormous in the adult animal, 
measuring six feet from tip to tip, and eleven 
inches in circumference above the burr. I 
scarcely think there are sufficient grounds for 
making this Oregon Elk a distinct species; it 
seems to me to be a well-marked variety only of 
the wapiti common to the eastern side of the 
Rocky Mountains. The wapiti on the Oregon 

* I use tlie term Elk, for the Wapiti, in its local sense. 
Strictly, it applies only to the Moose. 



CARIBOU, AND WHITE-TAILED DEER. 183 

coast grows much larger, and differs in colour 
from the animal found on the inland mountains ; 
but climatal differences are quite sufficient to 
account for it. The habits of the wapiti are 
too well known to need any description. 

WOODLAND CARIBOU REINDEER (Rangifer Cari- 
bou, And. and Bach.). The Caribou inhabits 
the high ridges of the Cascade Mountains, the 
Galton range, and western slope of the Rocky 
Mountains. I have no positive proof of its exist- 
ence north of the Eraser, but I think there can 
be but little doubt, if any, that its range is 
through the entire mountain district, extending 
into Russian America. 

VIRGINIAN DEER ( Census Virginianus, Bodd) ; 
WHITE-TAILED DEER (Cervus leucurus, Douglas). 
Whether these are really distinct species I cannot 
say, but the small grey deer so common on the 
plains about Nesqually and in the timber belting 
the Sumass prairies, I believe to be Cervus leucurus. 
I obtained two specimens on the Diamond Tree 
pass, a high mountain ridge ascending sharply up 
from the Sumass prairie, in December one a 
young male, the other a doe heavy in fawn and 
have no doubt about their being the above species. 
I have also seen this deer on Vancouver Island, 
and in the Kootanie region. 



184 BLACK-TAILED AND MULE DEER. 

BLACK-TAILED DEER (Cervus Columbianus, 
RichcL). This deer has by far the widest range, 
and is more numerous than any other species of 
the smaller deer. It is found on Vancouver 
Island, on a great many of the islands in the 
Gulf of Georgia, on the plains of Nesqually, 
eastern and western slopes of the Cascades, and 
through the entire district intervening between 
the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains ; south it 
extends through Oregon into California. I saw 
herds of them on the Klamath plains. 

The Sumass Indians had a very ingenious 
mode of coaxing the male within shot during the 
hunting season. They make a call or whistle 
from the hollow stalk of a water-plant, and hiding 
in the bush imitate the cry of the doe; by this 
artifice they entice the male to come close to them. 
Their favourite resort seems to be in the timber, 
about open plains, prairies, and on high ground, 
during the summer months, but descend for 
shelter and protection into the valleys on the 
approach of winter and snow. Their fawns are 
dropped in May, two being by no means unusual. 

MULE DEER (Cervus macrotus, Say). I am 
far from sure as to the existence of this curious 
deer west of the Cascades, neither do I think it 
is at all plentiful on the eastern side. The speci- 



A PEEP AT THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 185 

mens brought home were obtained at Colville 
during the winter months ; I also saw other very 
fine specimens in the possession of two Indians, 
in the Shimilkameen valley. It is found on the 
Spokan plains, and in the adjoining forests, on 
the Tobacco plains in the Kootanie district, and 
on the slopes of the Galton range of hills. 

The trail follows the eastern slope of the 
Galton mountains to the Flathead river, a good- 
sized stream. The Flathead valley is about 4,005 
feet above the sea-level, sandy and thinly tim- 
bered ; such vegetation as there is, evidences a 
particularly dry climate. From this valley, 
after fording the stream, the ascent of the Rocky 
Mountains commences, a gradual incline through 
rather thick timber for some distance ; then over 
a steep hill 6,970 feet above the sea, to descend 
its eastern slope and reach a glen. Wild and 
beautiful is the scenery on every side : right and 
left stupendous pinnacle-like hills, white with 
snow, seem to reach to the clouds ; ridge follows 
ridge, each seeming to be more craggy and 
massive than its fellow, as far as the eye can 
scan this wondrous landscape. Aptly has this 
great central axis of elevation been named the 

o 

Rocky Mountains; one is puzzled to imagine 
how such masses of rock could have been up- 



188 YELLOW-HAIRED POECUPINE. 

heaved to so great an altitude. The main trail 
from this glen leads over the Kootanie pass to 
the Buffalo plains of the Saskatchawan ; our trail 
to the astronomical station, near the 49th parallel, 
6,480 feet above the sea-level; above this nearly 
6,000 feet more altitude could be gained by 
climbing. 

Whilst at our camp in the glen I obtained two 
rather rare animals, one 

THE YELLOW-HAIRED PORCUPINE (Erethizon epi- 
xanthus, Brandt). A quaint-looking beast, that 
may be seen in the Porcupine Case in the British 
Museum ; the quills are entirely hidden by a long 
silky coat of yellowish hair. Of its habits I know 
very little ; living entirely in the dense forests, 
watching it is an impossibility. It feeds on the 
bark and succulent shoots of the shrubs and trees 
composing the underbrush: for nipping these 
off the jaws they are armed with four powerful 
incisor-teeth, sharp as chisels. 

SAY'S STRIPED SQUIRREL (Spermophilus la- 
teralis) is one of the most beautiful of the 
Spermophiles (' seed lovers.') Its size is about 
that of the ordinary red squirrel. Instead of 
the quiet sombre garb usually worn by its 
brethren, this little squirrel is clad in the 
gayest costume imaginable; and as it nimbly 



A HANDSOME LI VERY. 187 

skips from rock to rock, or darts along a fallen 
tree, the stripes assume a ribbon-like appearance, 
unlike any animal's coat I ever saw. 

Two broad stripes of jet-black mark each side 
of the animal, and extend from the shoulders to 
the thighs; between each pair of stripes is a line 
of equal width, of a yellowish-white. The medium 
region of the back is a rich grey ; chestnut-brown, 
mottled with yellow and black, colours half the 
thighs, and extends over the hips, shading away 
into the grey on the back. The tail is rather 
short, but very brushy; the under-surface, coloured 
a bright yellow-brown, is margined with a much 
lighter tint of the same colour. Above the tail 
is grey, like the back. Length about seven inches ; 
tail four inches without the terminating hairs. 

It feeds principally on young grass and the 
juicy stalks of succulent plants; extending from 
the holes or clefts where they reside, trails beaten 
like footpaths lead in the direction of the favourite 
herbage. It is a most active and watchful 
squirrel : at the slightest noise it bounds with as- 
tonishing speed, and takes leaps almost equal to 
those of the flying-squirrel to reach its hole, 
uttering as it runs a low plaintive whistle. Con- 
spicuous as this squirrel's coloration appears when 
viewed apart from its habitat, nevertheless, it 



388 PINUS CONTOETA. 

admirably accords with the light and dark 
markings peculiar to the slaty rocks amidst 
which I saw it; when the animal is perfectly 
still, it is quite impossible to make it out to be 
other than a portion of the rock, until by moving 
it betrays itself. 

The most conspicuous pine in these elevated 
districts is the Pinus contorta. It thrives at 
an altitude of 7,000 feet above the sea-level. 
Where there are Indians the young trees of this 
species are invariably stripped of their bark to a 
height of seven feet from the around, or as high 

o o o 

up the trunk as an ordinary person can reach. 
This is done in order to procure the inner bark, 
which the savages use as food ; they eat it in the 
fresh state as peeled from the tree, and com- 
pressed into cakes, in which state it can be pre- 
served for a long time, and is easily carried. 

The Summit Camp is placed in a snug nook 
under a massive slaty kind of mountain; there is 
little to be seen from it save rugged hilltops and 
snow. Near the terminal point of the Boundary- 
line is the watershed, and it is hardly an exag- 
geration to say one may sit and smoke his pipe 
with one foot in the water that finds its way into 
the Atlantic, whilst the other is bathed in that 
flowing into the Pacific. 



ROCK PTARMIGAN. 189 

THE ROCK PTARMIGAN (Lagopus rupestris) and 
a few smaller birds, were the only members of 
the feathered tribes I saw. The ptarmigan had 
their chickens with them ; the parents and young 
grouse may be seen in the British Museum, 
obtained at this camp. 

THE MOUNTAIN GOAT, which is in reality 
nearer an antelope (Aplocerus montanus, Grd.), 
is a most conspicuous feature amidst this rocky 
desolation. Gazing on some unusually splin- 
tered and contorted hillside, suddenly a small 
herd of mountain-goats come, as if by ma- 
gic, round a jutting corner, and deliberately 
march along' on a ledge, where, to all appear- 
ance, a cat would be puzzled to find a firm 
foothold; frighten them and they gallop with 
equal safety, and, springing from one side of a 
chasm to another, pitch like a bird, rather 
than a hard-hoofed fourfooted beast, on the 
narrowest ledges. The females had kids (or 
fawns perhaps is more correct) by their sides. 
I ate some of the flesh, but its flavour was goaty 
in the extreme. 

THE BIGHORN or MOUNTAIN SHEEP (Ovis 
montana, Cuvier) is also a tenant of the lower 
ridges of these mountains. I did not see any, 
but the Indians say they often kill them. The 



190 EOCK WHISTLER. 

4 

bighorn is also found on the middle and upper 
ridges of the Cascades. 

THE HOARY MARMOT (Arctomys okanaganus), 
or, as styled by the fur-traders, the ' Rock 
Whistler,' lives on the very summit of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

If there is a spot on the face of the globe 
more dismal, solitary, inhospitable, and unin- 
viting than another, that spot is where this most 
accomplished siffleur resides; and it is not by 
any means a matter to be wondered at, that 
so very little is to be found, .in works on Natural 
History, relating to this little anchorite's habits. 

My purpose being to climb the craggy ascent 
that led up to the watershed not by any 
means a dangerous thing to do; it was simply 
leg-aching, tiresome, scrambling work. The 
grass being dry, it polished the soles of my 
mocassins, until they became like burnished 
metal ; so that progression, up the long green 
slopes, was much the same as it would have been 
up an ice-slant, with skates on. I got up at last, 
and, feeling somewhat fagged, seated myself on a 
flat rock, unslung my gun, lighted my pipe, and 
had a good look at everything round about me. 

The sun had crept steadily up unto the clear 
sky, unflecked by a single cloud ; the mists, that 



A KEVEEIE IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 191 

in the early morning hung about the ravines, 
and partially veiled the peaks and angles of the 
vast piles of rocks, had vanished, revealing them 
in all their immensity. Below me was a lake, 
smooth as a mirror, but the dark-green cold 
look of the water hinted at unfathomable depth. 
Tiny rivulets, fed by the snow, wound their 
way, like threads of silver, between the rocks 
and through the grass, to reach the lake 

I was not so much impressed with the beauty 
of the landscape, as awed by its substantial mag- 
nificence. Few living things were to be seen 
save a group of ptarmigan, sunning themselves 
on a ledge of rocks, a couple of mountain-goats 
browsing by the lake, and a few grey-crowned 
linnets, birds seldom seen but at great alti- 
tudes. There were also the recent traces of a 
grizzly, or black bear, that had been munching 
down the wild angelica. A solemn stillness 
intensified the slightest sound to a supernatural 
loudness even a loosened stone rattling down 
the hillside made me start ; there was no buzz 
and hum of busy insects, or chirp of birds, or 
splash of torrents, to break the silence ; the very 
wind seemed afraid to moan: it was deathlike 
silence to the very letter. 

As I smoked away, silent as all about me, sud- 



192 THE WHISTLER'S DEATH-KNELL. 

denly a sharp clear whistle, that awoke the 
echoes far and near, thoroughly roused me, and 
sent all other thoughts to the rout. As I could 
see nothing, I deemed it expedient to remain 
quiet. Cocking my rifle, I lay on the grass, and 
waited patiently for a repetition of the perform- 
ance. I had not long to tax my patience : again 
came the same sound, then others joined in the 
refrain, until the place, instead of being steeped 
in silence, resembled the gallery of a theatre on 
boxing-night. 

I very soon spied one of the performers, seated 
on the top of a large rock ; its position was that 
of a dog when begging. With his forefeet he was 
busy cleaning his whiskers, smoothing his fur, 
and clearly going in for a somewhat elaborate 
toilet : perhaps he was going a wooing, or to a 
morning concert, or for a constitutional, or a 
lounge on the ' Marmot's mile ; ' but whatever his 
intentions were, I regret to say they were frus- 
trated. Solely in the cause of science I had to 
stop him ; resting my rifle on a flat rock, as I lay 
on the ground, I fired, and the sharp crack, as it 
rang amid the rocks, was the whistler's death-knell. 

Rapidly reloading, I scampered off to secure my 
prize. I am afraid there was not much pity felt 
delight at getting a new animal was uppermost. 



SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. 193 

Smoothing his fur, I plugged the shot-holes, exa- 
mined him closely, measured him; admired his 
handsome shape, bright-grey coat, and brushy 
tail; investigated his teeth and claws, walked 
back, and had a look at him from a distance; 
then set to work, and skinned him. You can 
see him also, if you like to visit the British 
Museum, where this very victim is ' set up,' and 
placed amidst the Marmots ; his name, together 
with that of his destroyer, black-lettered on the 
board to which he is affixed. At the sound of 
the rifle, every one of his companions took sensa- 
tion-headers into their holes, and did not come 
out again during my stay on this occasion. 

The length, from the nose to the root of the tail, 
was a trifle over twelve inches ; the tail six inches ; 
head oval, and very flat ; nose, short and broad, 
thickly covered with fine hairs; the cutting 
(incisor) teeth large, strong, and of a yellow 
colour; whiskers, black and long; ears, nearly 
hid by the fur on the neck and vertex ; the claws, 
strong and curved, are admirable digging imple- 
ments. The general tint is that of a rusty-grey, 
with a blackish conspicuous band extending from 
the back of the head down the shoulders. I 
need not give a more minute detail of specific 
characters. 

VOL. n. o 



194 SOCIABLE ANIMALS. 

In habits marmots are essentially sociable 
animals, inasmuch as they live in little colonies ; 
but, unlike some of the prairie marmots, these 
rock-whistlers, when married, have a house of 
their own ; and if blessed with a family a blessing 
seldom denied them they kick out the youthful 
pledges of affection as soon as they can nibble up 
a living for themselves. The burrow, which is 
quite two feet in diameter, is dug invariably in a 
slanting direction, generally at the base of a rock, 
standing up like a pedestal, on which they love 
to sit and whistle. Wide trails, bare-like roads, 
lead in all directions from their holes to the 
feeding and drinking-places ; their hours of repast, 
sensibly chosen, are early in the morning, when 
the grass and herbage is wet with dew. 

For only a few months, during summer, is this 
quaint little miner permitted to revel in the 
luxury of light; for seven dreary months out 
of the twelve does he sleep out his drowsy 
existence. What a wise and wonderful provi- 
sion, to secure from utter extinction animals 
compelled to live in these icy regions, is hyberna- 
tion! Growing wondrously fat during the sum- 
mer, they retire, when the nipping cold and deep 
snow comes, into burrows lined with soft warm 
bedding ; there become semi-torpid, and literally a 



ROASTED MARMOT. 195 

living stove ; for the fuel, stored as fat, is slowly 
burned up in the lungs, giving out heat just as 
coal would in a fire-grate. Thus the rock- 
whistler heeds not the chilly blasts that sweep 
through gorge and glen, and so sleeps on safe 
from harm, until Sol comes to set him free. 

The Redskin is the whistler's most implacable 
enemy ; he never tires of hunting and trapping the 
little animal, delighting to use his jacket in the 
fabrication of rugs. The hair being thick, the 
marmot-robe keeps out both wet and cold, and 
stands an immense amount of wear and rough 
usage. Much as the savage likes the coat of. his 
captive, he likes his carcase even better. When 
skinned a long peeled stick is thrust through the 
body, from tail to head; then placed slantwise, 
one end being fast in the ground, the treasured 
morsel is slowly roasted over a gentle fire. 

I can bear testimony to the delicacy of roasted 
marmot; it beats Ostend rabbit hollow; all 
honour to the redskin's taste ! A dinner off a 
roasted rock- whistler, washed down with a pull 
at the crystal stream, is a repast not to be 
despised. 

It would prove of little interest to the reader 
to go again over the ground we have, I trust, 
travelled pleasantly together. The Boundary line 

o 2 



196 A NIPPING WINTER. 

was completed too late to return that same year, so 
another dreary winter was spent at Colville : the 
cold was so intense that the ink froze in the pens, 
even when it was kept hot before the fire, and 
thus put a stop to all writing; the steam 
rising from the teacups would freeze into a kind 
of sleet, and fall again on the table. Still, in spite 
of this intense cold, if the air was still, as it 
usually happened to be, no inconvenience was 
felt, and we all wandered about with but 
little if any warmer clothing than we wore at 
Vancouver Island. 

Whilst we remain here, I may as well give a 
brief account of packing, camping, and pro- 
visioning, and the general features of the Boun- 
dary line, as well as the natives and their dogs. 



197 



CHAPTER X. 

CAMPING PACKING PROVISIONING THE BOUNDARY TOUR. 

To know how, when, and where to camp, and 
to be practically familiar with the systems 
of transport, necessitated in a country where 
roads, wheels, and i iron horses ' are unknown, 
forms by no means the least valuable part of a 
traveller's experience. Twelve years of constant 
practice in ' the art of travel,' spent in various 
parts of the world, has taught me very many 
useful lessons, that may be, possibly, valuable to 
those who intend devoting a portion (be it large 
or small) of their lives to wandering through 
uncivilised regions. 

A tent should always form part of a traveller's 
equipment, if possible (my remarks apply more 
particularly to North-western America). Camp- 
ing out is all very well, ' sleeping with no other 
canopy than the blue expanse ' sounds very 
romantic and pretty, and generally ' lionises ' the 
individual on his return who has done it j but no 



198 THE TENT AND BEDDING. 

one with a grain of experience would voluntarily 
sleep in the open air, if a tent was procurable. ' Jf 
you can't do what you like you must do what 
you can ;' in the absence of canvas, a sky roof is 
about the only alternative. 

Assuming a tent is available, the kind of tent 
I should strongly recommend is a ' gable end ' or 
' dog-kennel ' twelve-ell tent, with a seven-foot 
ridge-pole, and two six-feet upright poles, The 
three poles should be joined in the centre with 
strong galvanised iron ferrules, so that they can 
be put together like a fishing-rod. One man, 
unaided, can with very little practice pitch such a 
tent in from eight to ten minutes, and peg it down. 

Let me advise all travellers to carry their poles 
with them ; trusting to the chance of cutting them 
is a bad plan, causing delay in pitching the tent. 
Poles are not always so very easy to find as the in- 
experienced may imagine, although travelling in 
the very midst of a forest ; more than this, a tent is 
never so secure as when pitched with poles made 
on purpose. It is always better, too, to carry tent- 
pegs than trusting to cut them at the camping- 
ground ; barrel-staves afford capital material for 
pegs. 

Bedding. A. small horsehair mattress, three 
feet six inches wide, and six feet long. Two 



TOOLS AND COOKING UTENSILS. 199 

blankets, a buffalo-skin, and waterproof wrapper 
to spread on the ground, and' roll the bedding 
in when travelling, can be easily carried 
with a tent, and will be found very pleasant to 
sleep on at night or lounge on in the day. Great 
care should be exercised in packing up the 
bedding. Mules and horses often get a swim, or 
fall in fording streams, and rain frequently 
drenches one when least expected. If well rolled 
the bed should be impervious to water, and 
therefore safe against any accident from wet ; 
finding soaked bedding on camping is enough to 
try the temper of a saint. 

Tools. An American axe and a three-inch 
auger are the only tools a skilled hand needs; 
with them he can build a log-house, or roof 
it, and add fireplace, chimney, door, and win- 
dow; he can also make a raft, build a bridge, or 
hollow a cedar-log into a safe and shapely canoe. 
A strong case-knife, such as pork-butchers use, 
is by far the best kind of knife for general pur- 
poses. Worn at the belt, it is useful for everything, 
from mending a pen to skinning a buffalo or a 
humming-bird. 

Cooking Utensils. A frying-pan, small wooden 
pail, and tin pannikin. The former is equal 
to any emergency, for baking or frying; the 



200 CLOTHS BAG AND LACE-UPS. 

cup to boil coffee, make tea in, and drink from ; 
the pail to dip water, and keep near the camp- 
fire ready for any purpose. A pail is also very 
useful to give your animals a drink, when the 
water is inaccessible to them from mire or 
rocky canons. 

Spare cloths should be carried in a round 
waterproof bag, made of strong canvas, painted 
(such as sailors use), in which notebooks and 
writing gear can be also stowed away. 

For clothing I give the preference to good 
Scotch tweed, as a material better suited to 
stand wear-and-tear, and supply warmth without 
weight, than any fabric I have ever tried. Fur 
I abominate, as having no quality that is not 
immeasurably improved in a woollen fabric. 
Leather for jacket or trousers avoid as you 
would a rattle-snake, if you can by any possi- 
bility obtain other material. It shrinks when 
wet, shrinks when dry, feels cold at all times, 
and requires a week to dry if thoroughly soaked 
-a process that contracts the sleeves, if a 
jacket, from the wrist to the elbow, and trousers 
to knee-breeches. 

Strong ' lace-up ' boots, if you are provident 
enough to bring out a stock, are far and away the 
best foot-armature. Mocassins are only to be 



FIREARMS AND FISHHOOKS. 201 

tolerated in the absence of regular shoes and 
boots ; they are as pervious to water as brown 
paper, and but scant protection against prickles 
and sharp stones. ' Skin-shoes ' do very well for 
redskins, whose feet are as hard and tough as 
a saddle-flap ; but take advice, and never forget 
a good supply of strong ' lace-ups ' and a liinp 
accommodating ' wide-awake.' 

Firearms may be left entirely to the choice of 
the traveller : every man has his fancy weapon, 
and is ready at all times to do battle in support 
of its merits. To my taste a strong No. 12 
double gun, smooth bore and to load at the 
muzzle, is by far the most useful gun for general 
purposes. Were I to enter into the respective 
merits of muzzle-loaders versus breech-loaders, 
the smooth-bore versus the rifle, I should only 
repeat what has been time after time discussed 
by the most able and experienced sportsmen. 
The choice of firearms I leave to my readers' 
tastes and inclinations. 

Fishhooks of different sizes, gut, silk, and a 
piece of cobbler's wax, are absolute essentials ; if 
you are angler sufficient to tie your own flies, 
fur and feathers are always obtainable. It saves 
a host of bother, to quietly sit down by the river- 
bank or camp-fire, and manufacture any insect 



202 MULE AND HORSE EQUIPMENT. 

monstrosity you may deem most likely to ' kill.' 
Failing this useful accomplishment, take an as- 
sortment of flies with you ; strong, rough, gaudy 
fellows I have always found most effective. Hair- 
line is best, if you are lucky enough to possess it, 
but stout cord will answer every purpose. Winch 
and rod are luxuries I always dispense with when 
travelling. I cut a stick to serve my purpose, and 
tie my line to the end of it ; wind round the 
surplus length, fasten with a couple of half-hitches, 
and flog-away ; if by chance a fish is hooked, too 
large to risk jerking out, play him as best you 
can, and leave the rest to luck and the strength 
of the tackle. A line equipped for immediate 
use I always wear twisted round my hat. In 
coming to a stream that looks enticing, I tether 
my horse, cut a rod, tie on my line, and go to 
work. If success rewards my efforts, I catch 
as many fish as may be needed, string them 
up, and wait for camping-time to devour my 
share. 

As the equipment of mules and horses, pro- 
visioning, and systems of transport apply with 
equal force to many as to a solitary individual, it 
will save repetition, and answer every purpose, to 
describe the means we adopted in marking the 
Boundary line. Packing one or fifty mules re- 



MULES NOT MODELS OF AMIABILITY. 203 

quires, in the packer or packers, an equal amount 
of skill. 

As I have already said, a bell-mare is absolutely 
indispensable to a train of mules. A single mule 
can be tethered to graze ; a train must be turned 
loose, and kept if possible from wandering by 
the bell-mare, which must be either tethered or 
hobbled. More than this, unless the train volun- 
tarily followed the bell, no power on earth could 
drive them a yard when loaded. Pigs are models 
of passive obedience compared with mules ; mules 
never, by any remote contingency, do right except 
by accident. The bearer of tea, tobacco, bedding, 
instruments (anything, in fact, spoilable) is pretty 
sure, if he has a chance, to fall or purposely roll 
in any water through which his route lies. Nine 
chances to one, when an early start is determined 
on, two or three mules are absent ; and after 
hours of search and delay, the irate packers 
suddenly pounce upon them, or they come strol- 
ling back, whisking their tails and braying for the 
the bell, having been quietly snoozing or design- 
edly hid in the bushes or sedge-plants close to 
the camp the whole time. 

We had one small ' pinto ' (spotted) mule, very 
good if anyone could only get on his back, and 
sit on it after getting there ; when packed, his duty 



204 PACK-SADDLES VERSUS APARACJOS. 

was usually to carry the tent-poles. I am sure he 
knew, when thus armed, that mischief was in his 
power : no sooner was he loosed from the packers 
than he charged in amongst the thickest clump of 
mules he could see, running the sharp ends of the 
sticks into their sides, and sending the band right 
and left paying off old grievances, I imagine. 
Colonel Hawkins (Her Majesty's Commissioner) 
once saw him turn a complete summersault, when 
the aparacjo was first synched on. With all their 
faults we could not do without them, and had 
patiently to put up with their oddities. 

Pack-saddles of all sorts and patterns, that have 
any element of woodwork in their construction, I 
decry as worse than useless. The frame broken, 
your pack-saddle is done for; no mending will 
ever make it fit for use. It will work unsteadily 
on the animal's back ; the load easily shifts, and a 
gall is the consequence that may take months to 
heal. We had a few ' crosstree ' pack-saddles, 
made to begin with on the most approved plan 
and of the strongest materials, but abandoned 
them for the aparacjo, a Mexican invention, which 
I believe to be the very best contrivance ever 
made for packing freight of various kinds for 
transport on mule-back. 

It requires a great deal of skill and long prac- 



' EIGGING ' FOR A MULE. 205 

tice to pack and lash goods properly on to an 
aparacjo; but, believe me, the knowledge to a 
traveller is worth all the time and trouble it takes 
to acquire. 

The great thing to accomplish in the con- 
struction of a pack-saddle is to avoid the use of 
wood, buckles, fixed lining, and stitching where 
any strain is required. An aparacjo is simply 
two large leather bags fastened together at the 
top : sew two bed-pillows together by the ends, 
stuff them tightly with hay, hang them across 
the back of a dog (or a chair will do), fasten them 
firmly with a wide canvas girth, imagine them 
to be made of strong leather, and you have an 
extemporised aparacjo before you. 

The ' rigging ' for a mule consists of 1. The 
Aparacjo, which varies in size from five feet in 
height or length to three feet six inches, the width 
being about two to two-and-a-half feet, the weight 
of an average-sized one being from thirty-six to 
forty pounds when dry, of course much heavier 
when wet. The value in California is about fifty 
dollars (10/.). 2. The Synch which is a wide 
canvas girth with a leather strap at the end, that 
runs through a wooden eye or iron ring should 
be one foot six inches wide, and about twenty 
feet long; its use is to fasten on the aparacjo. 



206 USE OF THE CORONA AND BLIND. 

3. The Sling rope, made of cord about the size of 
clothes-line, twenty to thirty feet long, according 
to the material to be packed ; its use is to sling 
various packages, or casks, or boxes, in readiness 
for lashing. 4. The Riata, a strong rope sixty 
feet long, with which everything is securely 
lashed; by an intricate but admirable arrange- 
ment, this long rope, that has neither loop nor 
knot, so fastens the load that a mule rolling down 
a hillside can hardly displace it, a thing I have 
seen happen more than once. 5. The Sweat- 
cloth, a piece of canvas about four feet square, 
that goes next the skin. 6. The Blankets, four 
or five pieces, a little larger than the sweat-cloth. 
7. The Corona, an embroidered cloth that goes 
between the aparacjo and blankets. 

The packers know by the patterns embroidered 
on it to which mule the aparacjos belong. A 
blinder, to drop over the mule's eyes whilst being 
saddled and packed, always carried by each 
packer, also serves as a formidable whip, of which 
the mules have a wholesome dread; laggers in a 
train, unruly and careless ' mulos,' get switchings 
with the blinder they do not readily forget. A 
halter completes the equipment (technically 
styled ' the rigging ') of a pack-mule. Each 
packer has a riding-inule ; the cook always rides 



BRINGING IN AND SADDLING. 207 

the bell-mare in front of the train. Two packers 
to every six mules is a fair division of work. 

Imagine a camp chosen with due regard to the 
three primary requisites wood, water, and grass: 
breakfast over, bedding rolled up, tents struck 
and packed in the tent-bag, and the tinkling bell 
heralds the approach of the mules, being driven 
in by the packer whose duty it is to ' herd ' them. 
Fifty come trotting in ; the packers, blinders in 
hand, await their arrival, standing by the apa- 
racjos, that are placed side by side in a kind of half- 
circle. The bell-mare seized on first, is haltered, 
and tied to the first aparacjo; then the mules file 
up, each standing with its head over an aparacjo ; 
it sometimes happens to be the one it carries, mere 
matter of accident, not the choice of the mule on 
the score of ownership ; they are not half so clever 
as that. The halters are then put on from the 
opposite side of the aparacjo, and each fastened 
to that of its neighbour. This saves counting; 
if the halters are all used, the mules are there to 
wear them. 

Saddling begins immediately after haltering. 
Two packers loose a mule from its neighbour, 
find the aparacjo belonging to it, slip the blind 
over its eyes, adjust the saddle-cloths, fling 
on the aparacjo, and then ' synch up.' First one 



208 PACKING AND STARTING. 

packer, placing his foot against the poor animal 
to get the greater purchase, hauls with all his 
mio-ht, until one would fancy mule endurance 

O ' 

had been taxed to its utmost limits. Not so, how- 
ever : the other packer, who has been on the off- 
side steadying the aparacjo, now comes to aid his 
comrade ; each this time places a foot against the. 
mule's ribs, and, by their united efforts, nearly 
convert the beast into the shape of a dragon-fly ; 
the lynch fast, the blind is slipped off and the 
mule turned loose to grunt, kick, plunge and 
roll, as best suits its temper. 

When all are saddled, packing commences. The 
' freight ' is all piled in loads ; under each load 
lays the riata or long lashing cord, on the load 
the sling-rope. To describe the manner of 
4 putting on ' a load, and properly lashing it when 
on, is impossible. A month's daily practice is 
insufficient to make an apt scholar a moderately 
good packer. One may watch the mode of fas- 
tening the load with a riata for a year twice a 
day, and be no more able to do it at the twelve 
months' end than the flute could be learned by 
looking at another blow and finger it. Hence 

o t - i 

written description would be useless. 

Packs adjusted, the cook starts on the bell- 
mare, the mules being carefully counted as they 



CORN BETTER THAN BISCUIT. 209 

string one by one after her. The packers, 
mounted, ride like field officers up and down 
the line of marching mules. When a pack slips, 
the mule is at once caught and the disarrange- 
ment readjusted. Extreme vigilance is needed 
whilst a train is on the march, lest a shifted load, 
or loosened lynch, causes a gall on the back of 
the mule ; a half hour's negligence in this respect 
may render an animal useless for three or four 
months. 

In provisioning the men employed on the line 
flour was found to be far better than hard 
bread, more portable, less liable to injury, and 
better relished than biscuit. Our men learned to 
bake capital bread, small iron ovens being part 
of each working parties' equipment. Baking- 
powder was also served out as part of the 
rations. 

Salt pork and ration beef were carried in lOOlb. 
barrels, two barrels being a load for a light mule, 
or four fifty-pound sacks of flour. Two hundred 
and fifty pounds may be taken as a fair average 
load per animal for a train of mules. 

Feeding the mules west of the Cascades was a 
most expensive and difficult affair. From the 
Chilukweyuk depot to the furthest astronomical 
camp, fourteen days' journey for packed mules, 

VOL. II. P 



210 MARKING THE BOUNDARY LINE. 

we had to feed the animals entirely on barley ; 
so thick was the underbrush that it was impos- 
sible for the mules to get into it from off the 
trail. 

If ten mules started for the far-away camps, 
five had to be loaded with barley, to feed them- 
selves, and the other five packed with rations. 
The cost was enormous, as the grain had to be 
obtained from Chili, our consumption sometimes 
amounting to 1,000 Ibs. per day. 

This difficulty was greatly enhanced by the 
mosquitoes, the grass lands being so infested 
with these pests as to render grazing impossible. 
East of the Cascades we needed grain only in 
wintering, the timber being open and grass 
abundant. 

It would take a volume to describe the cutting 
and marking the 'Boundary line.' The illustration 
drawn from a photograph of one of the camps, 
east of the Cascades, shows the tangle we had often 
to work in. The line is cut through the timber, 
from the coast to the eastern slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains ; marked by an obelisk of faced 
granite at its commencement, then for a short 
distance by iron posts, the remainder by stone 
cairns placed at varying distances but in con- 
spicuous places. The working staff was generally 



THE WORKING STAFF. 211 

from 120 to 150 men. But as all the details of 
this formidable undertaking will be published 
in the Commission report, it would be useless to 
give them in a work more particularly refer- 
ring to the natural history of North Western 
America. 



p2 



21-2 



CHAPTER XL 

INDIAN DOGS. 

THESE faithful animals, that cling to man through 
good and evil, are of the utmost importance to 
the native tribes inhabiting the Pacific and 
Atlantic sides of the Rocky Mountains. On the 
eastern slope, the Thickwood Crees, who occupy 
the country to the west of Lake Winnipeg and 
the northern boundary of the Saskatchewan, 
manage their transport with horses and canoes 
during summer, and in winter with dogs only. 

In summer, dogs carry the loads on their backs 
on pads. In winter, the Indians travel on snow- 
shoes, and then harness the dog's to li^ht sleighs. 

' o o O 

which they tug over the snow. A pretty sight 
it is in bright summer time, when hill and valley 
are alike clothed with a luxuriant vegetation, to 
see a train of dogs trotting along with their little 
loads, stopping continually to take a good sniff at 
some attractive perfume, or lap from a tempting 



SUMMER AND WINTER TRAVELLING. 213 

pool. Such idlers get constantly in rear of their 
comrades ; the sharp crack of the Indian's whip re- 
calling the truants to a sense of their indiscretion, 

o 

they gallop with all their might to overtake the 
train ; an undue haste, the usual result of which 
is to scatter the load along the trail. Then the 
culprits get a real taste of the thong, and are re- 
packed. Every now and then they have a row, 
and, reckless of loads, roll one over the other, a 
very heap of dogs, all seeming to have an indivi- 
dual interest in the quarrel of any two. Sticks, 
whips, and kicks quell the riot ; the packs again 
adjusted, on they trot. 

In winter, when a trackless expanse of dazzling 
white extends in every direction from sky-line 
to sky-line, it is quite a picturesque sight and 
pleasant to witness a travelling party of Crees. 
The dogs, now harnessed to light sleighs (some of 
them made with runners, others simply a flat 
piece of board turned up at each end), jog after 
the men, who, shod with snow-shoes, stride along 
on the snow, as if it was hard ground ; crossing 
lakes and rivers on the ice, impassable at other 

* 

periods of the year. Each dog has usually a 
little string of bells round its neck, and as the 
bells are of different tones, the jingling music 
ringing clearly and sharply through the frosty 



214 THE 'TRAVAILLE.' 

air, sounds as cheery and welcome as the song of 
the first migrant. 

Other tribes in the Saskatchewan district (the 
Prairie Crees, for instance), instead of packing 
their dogs, use the ' travaille,' which is a triangle 
formed of two poles ; the two smaller ends, 
fastened together, rest on the dog's shoulders, 
being kept in place by a leather strap fastened 
round the neck ; a cross pole or two at the other 
end stretches them open and serves to make fust 
the load. This strange contrivance hauled along 
is better than packing, and available in the sum- 
mer when there are not sleighs, but inferior to 
sleighing in winter, as dogs always work more 
cheerily when six or eight are harnessed together, 
than when each has its labour to perform singly. 

This ' travaille ' is also used by the Crees for 
their horses, when moving their lodges and camp 
equipment. It often happens that an old squaw 
and two or three naked little savages are perched 
along upon the back of a horse, with its ' travaille ' 
and load, like birds upon a roost, the horse 
nearly hid by the poles and savages; the load 
and animal's head appear joined by a body 
composed of a clump of grotesque figures, 
their legs lost on the horse's sides. Coming 
suddenly upon such an apparition, amidst the 



DOG-SHEARING. 215 

shadow of the silent forest, has often scared my 
horse, and for the moment startled me. 

West of the Rocky Mountains I have never seen 
Indians use dogs for any system of transport ; 
they either pack what they have to carry on the 
backs of horses, where canoes are not available, 
or failing either of these, the unfortunate squaws 
do the work of beasts of burden. The inland 
tribes use dogs solely for the chase and protection 
of their camps. Along the coast several tribes 
at one time kept dogs of a peculiar breed, having 
long white hair, that were annually shorn as we 
shear sheep, and the hair so obtained was woven 
into rugs, sometimes mixed with the wool of the 

O ' 

mountain goat, at others duck feathers, or wild 

o 

hemp, finely carded. Several of these most 
curious rugs are in the Ethnological room at the 

o o 

British Museum, visible to any who may be 
curious to see weaving in its most primitive 
form. I obtained them at different places along 
the coast. The simple machine or loom, if it 
may be so designated, used in weaving these rugs 
is also visible in the collection of the ' Economic 
Museum ' at Kew. 

It is a singular thing if these remote tribes 
discovered for themselves the art of weaving ; 
for they knew and practised weaving dog-hair 



216 WHENCE CAME THE LONG-HAIRED DOGS? 

fabrics before (as far as I know) they had inter- 
course with any civilised races. The art of 
dyeing the hair, and materials used with it, of 
different colours was also known to them, thus 
producing a regularly designed coloured pattern. 
Since the Hudson's Bay Company introduced 
blankets, the native manufacture has entirely 
ceased, and the dog from which the hair was 
procured is extinct or very nearly. Whence came 
this singular white long-haired dog, possessed by 
only a few tribes inhabiting the coast, scrupu- 
lously kept on islands to prevent their extending 
or escaping, and differing in every specific detail 
from all the other breeds of dogs belonging to 
either coast or inland Indians? There are two 
ways, it would appear, in which it is possible for it 
to have been imported. The more probable sup- 
position is that it came from Japan; and I am 
informed by a friend who has been there, that the 
Japanese have a small long-haired dog, usually 
white, and from description very analogous to the 
dog that was shorn by the Indians of the coast 
and of Vancouver Island. 

There can be little doubt that the Japanese 
visited the coast of North Western America long 
prior to any other people; whether accidentally 
wrecked, or designedly landing to trade with the 



INDIAN DOGS, SO CALLED. -217 

natives, is not by any means clear. Traditions 
still exist amongst the Indians, near the mouth of 
the Columbia, of strangers having once been 
amongst them, long before they had seen Euro- 
peans ; and still more confirmatory of the story's 
probability, words undoubtedly of Japanese 
origin are still used in the jargon spoken on the 
coast called Chinook. If this is true, then I 
can see nothing very extraordinary in dogs 
having been on board the ship or junk visiting 
the coast, that they became the property of the 
natives, and that the art of weaving was 
learned from those who brought the dogs. More 
than this, the first possessors of these white dogs 
were, as far as it is possible to trace it, Chinook 
Indians, a tribe once very numerous, and living- 
near the entrance to the Columbia river ; thence 
the dog reached Puget's Sound, and eventually 
must have been carried to Nainimo across the 
Gulf of Georgia. Supposing it not to have been 
brought from Japan, the only other way it 
could have come must have been from the north, 
which is far from likely. That the dog was not 
indigenous, I am quite sure. 

An immense variety of dogs are at present 
called ' Indian dogs,' but nearly all of them, 
wherever the Indians have been in trading com- 



218 THE CAYOTE OR ' ITALIPUS.' 

munication with whites, are either crosses with 
the native dog, or curs of various patterns 
brought by ships, emigrants, or fur traders. 

The true Indian dog, as I have seen it in the 
Kootanie country, among the Spokans, and other 
tribes that have had no opportunity to cross the 
breed with any imported dog, is beyond all 
question nothing more than a tamed cayote 
or prairie wolf (Canis latrans) ; a most apt and 
appropriate name, for a greater thief does not 
exist. Although partially domesticated by that 
I mean taught to. hunt, come when called, and 
forsake their wild brethren still they retain 
every type and character of the untamed animal. 
This animal, called a cayote, a name of Mexican 
importation, the ' italipus ' of the Indians living 
at the Columbia's mouth, is not a true wolf. 

This the Indians clearly know, inasmuch as 
the ' italipus ' figures in every legend as being 
the animal whose form the bad spirit always 
assumes when doing evil and acting adversely to 
the good spirit. It seems to have taken a con- 
spicuous place in the myths of the red man, 
utterly different from that of any other animal, 
and to be identified with his earliest history in a 
way that neither the true wolf or fox has ever 
been. The 'cayote ' is to my mind a connecting 



MOST UNWELCOME MUSICIANS. 219 

link between the wolf proper and the fox. Its 
appearance, colour, form of head, and habit of 
hunting in packs, are all characters that ally it to 
the wolf; but true wolves, as far as I have been 
able to investigate their habits in North Western 
America, invariably have their young in caves, 
clefts in the rocks, or any place where digging is 
unnecessary ; whereas the cayote has its young in 
burrows, precisely in the same way as foxes. 
The voice, too, is compounded of the howl or bay 
of the wolf, and the snappish oft repeated yap, 
yap, peculiar to the fox. 

Camping near the skirts of a forest on the 
Cascade mountains, in chilly autumn, when the 
days so far shortened make the evenings tediously 
long to one alone by the solitary camp-fire, I 
have lolled and listened to the gradual cessation 
of sounds, that, one by one slowly ceasing, are 
at last hushed without your being aware of it, 
dying off into perfect silence ; as day with its 
blue sky fades into the purple twilight, and 
twilight leases behind it a black vaulted expanse, 
gemmed with sparkling stars ; changes that have 
no apparent beginning or end. Then amidst 
this darkness and silence the peculiar cry of the 
cayote bursts out as if close to your ear; ere 
one ceases another commences, then another, and 



220 A PUZZLE FOR A NATURALIST. 

so on until the darkness, in which nothing is 
visible save bright luminous specs, like spheres 
of fire, seems crowded with cayotes. A child 
could frighten away the entire assembly of lurk- 
ing thieves ; they lack the courage to face man, 
even when in hungry packs ; if disagreeably im- 
portunate and noisy, it is only necessary to take 
a burning stick, rush at the glittering eyes, and, 
helter-skelter, off they scamper for the thicket. 

This most peculiar double voice begins with a 
deep-toned kind of howl, that, rapidly running 
up into higher barking sounds, trends off at last 
into a kind of scream or prolonged yell, issued in 
jerks. Every dog that the Indians have un- 
crossed by an imported breed in British Columbia 
has this voice, and I have often and often been 
deceived, mistaking the bay of an Indian dog 
for the cry of the cayote. Even now it would 
be puzzling to a naturalist, if visiting the interior 
of British Columbia, to trace the origin of the 
indigenous dog. As an instance of what I mean, 
my own dogs consisted of a Russian setter, ob- 
tained at Fort Rupert, originally from Sitka; a 
thorough-bred pointer, and a spaniel; beside 
these the men of the Commission had a bull- dog 
and a legion of nondescript curs. To my certain 
knowledge these dogs interbred in numerous in- 



THE SWELTZA DOGS. 221 

stances with native dogs. In. many localities 
where this interbreeding took place, no record will 
remain of a pointer, setter, and spaniel having 
ever been there ; the type of the bull-dog, too, will 
be impressed on succeeding generations. To what 
conclusion could any one arrive, with these facts 
hidden ? Such is the present condition of all the 
Indian dogs along the entire extent of the north- 
west coast; one may find types representing 
every known variety. 

At Sweltza, a small lake west of the Cascades, 
near which the Boundary line passed, I saw 
a little tribe of Indians that had a number 
of dogs, that were hardly in any degree altered 
from the cayote; more than this, they actually 
burrowed deeply into the ground to bring forth 
their young, and it was a common thing to see 
the puppies playing as young foxes do, at the 
entrance to the burrows, dashing into them 
like wild beasts on the slightest alarm. We 
had one of the puppies at our headquarters in 
Vancouver Island; a regular little wolf, but un- 
luckily he got under a cart wheel, and was 
crushed to death. 

The following specific characters of Canis la- 
trans express with a few trifling exceptions those 
of the true Indian dog : 



222 CHANGE FROM DOMESTICATION. 

Larger than the red fox, but not nearly so 
large as the grey wolf (L. griseus). Muzzle long, 
slender, and sharp pointed like the red fox. Eyes 
rather nearer together than are those of the wolf; 
colour of eyes, light brown ; pupil circular. Ears 
long, triangular and erect, thickly clothed with 
hair except at the meatus, where they are quite 
naked. Feet long; the five pads on their under 
surfaces naked and black; a sixth, but smaller 
one, projects from behind the carpal joint. Four 
clawed digits on each foot, with a claw corre- 
sponding to the dew-claw in our dog attached to 
the rudimentary thumb. Tail bushy, tipped 
with white hairs, and half the length of the head 
and body. The general colour ochreous grey, 
much lighter on the belly than on the back and 
sides ; the back viewed from head to tail looks 
black, as each hair is tipped with black, although 
the remaining part and under-fur is plumbeous. 

The longer hairs on the neck, which the ani- 
mal bristles up when angry, are tricoloured ; the 
lower two-thirds reddish brown; then a ring of 
white, and a black tip, together giving a most 
curious speckled look to the neck of an enraged 
dog or cayote. 

The most marked change observable from do- 
mestication is in the hair, which becomes shorter, 



AN UNRULY PACK. 223 

softer, and more uniform in coloration, although 

o 

the tail retains its bushy appearance. Whether this 
alteration in the coat is due to the greater warmth 
of the lodges, I cannot tell ; diet can have nothing 
to do with it, for the dogs live in the Indian lodges 
pretty much the same as cayotes do when wild. 

I have given this brief description of the 
cayote's specific characters under the head of 
dogs, because, as I have endeavoured to show, 
my belief is, the dog, indigenous to British Co- 
lumbia, is nothing more than a tamed cayote. 

The Indians use them only for driving game. 
Putting a pack of the wolfish scrubby curs into 
a pine forest is like loosing so many wolves; 
away they tear, rushing up everything that comes 
in their way. If a puma or lynx is scared into 
a tree, the dogs at once surround it, and keep 
up the extraordinary double bark I endeavoured 
to describe, until the savages, who know that 
something is tree'd when they hear it, hasten to 
the spot and shoot the prisoner. Bears are 
generally either tree'd or driven to the rocks ; sur- 
rounded by these snapping pests they take no 
heed of the hunters, who, stealing close up, kill 
them, without risk of attack. 

Entering an Indian camp on foot, be it night 
or day, is really a risy thing to do. The prick- 



224 A DANGEROUS IMPRISONMENT. 

eared guards swarm out from every lodge, like 
wasps from a shaken nest, and without any en- 
quiry as to what your business may be, make 
straight at your legs, biting too in real earnest, 
if stick and toe are not vigorously plied, until the 
squaws, rushing to the rescue, lay on with lodge- 
poles, and release you from an imprisonment 
very desirable if practised on 'Ephraim,' * but 
very disagreeable to legs thinly trousered. 

The dogs are fed in great measure on fish ; the 
salmon that die, as described in Vol. I., afford a 
rich banquet to dogs, bears, wolves, and foxes. 
If, however, imported dogs are fed for any time 
on salmon, they get a kind of distemper, called 
by the settlers ' salmon sickness,' which is nearly 
always fatal. 

The ' cayotes ' and so-called dogs are both 
subject to a kind of mange, producing redness 
and irritability of skin, followed by loss of hair, 
and rapid wasting. I killed several cayotes, so 
bad from it as to be barely able to walk, and it 
as frequently kills the dogs. Whether this affec- 
tion, clearly contagious, first arose among the 
dogs, and was by them given to the cayotes, or vice 
versa, I was not able to discover. It is worthy 
of remark too, that the grey wolf never has it 

* Nickname for a ' Grizzly-bear.' 



HOW THE SKIN DISEASE IS PROPAGATED. 225 

so say the Indians, and I certainly never saw it, 
although I have seen hundreds of skins. This 
induces me to attribute its origin to domestica- 
tion ; the tamed ' cayote ' or dog, shunning the 
wolf, but interbreeding with the wild ' cayote,' 
thus propagated it. 



VOL. II. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE NATIVES, THEIR CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS. 

WHENCE the native tribes originally came that 
people British Columbia and Vancouver Island 
I know not. We may suppose them to have 
come from the east, north, south, or west, write 
volumes in support of our pet theories, and argue 
for an indefinite time, after all to find ourselves 
just as we started. There they are; and that is 
about all we really know. 

Their numbers, steadily decreasing, may be 
estimated at present as 30,000. The best divi- 
sion is into coast and inland tribes. The coast 
Indians are to a great extent dependant on the 
canoe, as the sole means of transport, the habit of 
sitting in which, continually, dwarfs and deforms 
the legs ; add to this the custom of altering the 
form of the skull in infancy, and we account for 
the degenerate appearance of the coast savage 
when compared to the active horseman and 
hunter of the interior. 



AVERAGE HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF INDIANS. 227 

I can the better explain many of their customs 
by repeating some questions, and the replies to 
them, submitted by me to Dr. Tolmie of the 
Hudson's Bay Company's service, than whom 
there is no better authority on Indian customs 
and traditions, and to whose great kindness I am 
indebted for much valuable knowledge, and a 
hospitality the remembrance of which cheers one. 
Mr. Anderson, also late of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, kindly, at Dr. Tolmie's request, replied 
to many of my queries. 

Question. The average size and weight (roughly 
estimated, or if practicable, by actual weighing 
and measuring) of the Nesqually Indians or the 
eight tribes speaking the Kliketat language? 

Answer. (Anderson.} Judging by the eye, I 
should say from 5 ft. 5 in. to 5 ft. 9 in.. Few 
would exceed the latter limit. They are by no 
means a large race of people. Weight probably 
from 130 to 150 Ibs. 

Q. The botanical names of the Peu-hay or 
bitter root; of N'poolthla; the Mamun, and 
Siekyiuan; also the Calz? 

A. (Anderson.) By the ' Peu-hay ' I presume 
is meant the Spalt-lum of the upper country. I 
have always regarded it as a mesembryanthemimi. 



228 STRANGE ALTERATION OF TEETH. 

Growing in the most arid localities, it flowers 
beautifully in early summer ; but its foliage soon 
withers under the scorching rays of the sun as 
the season advances. The other ' bitter root,' 
the Tra-cliin of the Carriers, is the bulb of the 
Lilium Canadense, flourishing in moist alluvial 
soils. I do not recognise the other varieties men- 
tioned in this article under the names given. 

Q. Have they any artificial way of modifying 
the form and appearance of the teeth? 

A. (Anderson.) No. At least not that I am 
aware of. Still they unconsciously do so. In 
the sandy districts the split salmon, in the pro- 
cess of drying, retains a portion of the comminuted 
sand driven by the winds. Hence in the process 
of mastication the teeth of the consumers are 
mechanically worn down. This to a transient 
observer might appear to be the effect of art, but 
it is not so. About the Dalles on the Columbia 
River (where, as you know, it is sandy enough) 
the natives before mid- age have the teeth worn 
nearly to the gums. Higher up, about Walla- 
walla and other places, the effect is not so con- 
spicuous ; not that the country is less sandy, but 
that the natives subsist more upon roots, and 
indeed have fewer salmon to eat. Among the 
Canadian voyagers of New Caledonia the same 



AN INDIAN ALBINO. 229 

effect is observable, and from the same cause. 
I give you a notable example, Theodore Larance, 
an old habitue, whom I dare say you know. 

Q. Are Albinos found ? The physical characters 
of their children, if they have any, or anything 
that can throw any light on their origin ? 

A. (Anderson.) Yes, but rarely. There is 
now, or was recently, in this town a woman, a 
native of Milbank Sound, who is a true Albino. 
An unprincipled rascal from San Francisco 
attempted, under pretext of marriage, to carry 
off this unfortunate woman to California, where 
it afterwards transpired it was his intention to 
exhibit her as a show. The timely interposition 
of the authorities prevented this nefarious pro- 
ject. I know of one or two cases where the 
Albino condition was partially developed. You 
may recollect, after having read the work of Sir 
A. M. Kenrie, his having hired, near the mouth 
of the Westroad River, a young Indian, who 
afterwards guided him to the coast. This man, 
I may mention, par parentliese, was still enjoying 
in my time in New Caledonia a green old age ; 
and I need not say that whenever he visited my 
fort he was well received, as well for his grey 
hairs as for his fidelity to Sir Alexander. This 
old man, hale and hearty still in 18-18, was 



230 RED-HAIRED INDIANS. 

the father of a numerous family, all of whom 
were healthy save the eldest Coos-se-yea, who 
had assumed the chieftainship in place of his 
aged father, and who was nearly an Albino; 
that is, his face and body were marked in nearly 
equal proportions with huge blotches of livid 
white, contrasted with the tawny hue of the 
normal man of his race. 

* 

A. (Tolmie.) The only Albino known of 
is the Ha-eel-tzuk or Milbank Sound woman, 
spoken of in Mr. A. C. Anderson's answer to 
Q. 4. She, as he states, is a true Albino, but is 
supposed to be a half-breed. Amongst the 
Hydah, or Queen Charlotte Island tribes, exist a 
family of coarse, red-haired, light-brown eyed, 
square-built people, short-sighted and of fair 
complexion. The oldest representative of this 
variety was twelve years ago an aged man, sixty 
or upwards, having all the above-mentioned 
characteristics well developed. In 1836 and 
1837 I saw at Vancouver, on the Columbia 
River, a Chenook Indian, at least sixty years 
old, red-haired and with light-brown eyes. 
Brown-haired Indians of fairer than the average 
complexion are to be found amongst all the tribes 
from the Columbia River to Stikine in Russian 
territory, N. lat., 57. 



PRESENTS TO THE BABY SAVAGE. 231 

Q. Are there any ceremonies connected 
with the birth of a child, whether male or 
female ? 

A. (Anderson.) None that I am aware of. 
A. (Tolmie.) Amongst the ' Sailish,' mis- 
named Flatheads, and the Kalleespelm, it was 
in primitive times the custom, amongst the 
wealthier families of a tribe, for the pater- 
nal relatives to present the mother on the 
birth of a child, with food, buffalo-robes 
and leather, such things as the child would 
need. The maternal relatives made return 
of clothing and other valuables, but not of food. 
Amongst the Shahaptain or Nerperce"s the 
mother gave presents but received none in 
return. 

Q. Does infanticide occur to any extent ; if so, 
what are the probable causes? 
A. (Anderson.) No. 

A. ( Tolmie.) Amongst the Chenooks and the 
Indians of Puget's Sound, as well as the Chimsians 
or Fort Simpson Indians, infanticide and causing 
of abortion are not uncommon. Certain old 
women at Nesqually I knew were reputed experts 
at the last-mentioned business. The causes are, 
at first, shame at having a child without an 
acknowledged father; latterly, the desire of 



232 ALTERING THE HEAD. 

unmarried women not to be hampered with 
children. 

Q. In dressing and cradling children, do they 
compress the forehead or flatten the occiput, 
or adopt any methods by which other parts of the 
body may be affected ? 

A. (Anderson.) No; at least not perceptibly. 

A. (Tolmie.) The Indians from Columbia 
River to Milbank Sound inclusive flatten the 
forehead; also the Yakimas and Kliketats or 
Whulwhypum amongst the tribes of the interior, 
speaking the Walla-walla language, otherwise 
known as the Kliketat. The north-western 
tribes from Milbank Sound to Fort Simpson., and 
perhaps farther north, compress the vertex or 
crown so as to flatten that part of the head. 
The Sailish, Kalleespelm, &c., in dressing an 
infant, leave the head, shoulders and hips uncom- 
pressed. They bandage the waist and legs with 
the view of producing a broad-shouldered, small- 
waisted, and straight-limbed adult. 

Q. What the average size of families, and are 
births of more than one child common ? 

A. (Anderson.) I cannot state the average. 
Twin-births are rare, however, in my expe- 
rience. 



THE PUNISHMENT OF INCONSTANCY. 233 

Q. To what age do females continue to 
bear children, and how long do they suckle 
them ? 

A. (Anderson.) Probably from 40 to 46. It 
is hard to arrive at the ages of Indians, male or 
female. 2nd. Sometimes from two till three 
years. 

Q. Is chastity cultivated or defective? 

A. (Anderson.) Among the interior tribes 
chastity is a virtue. Among the fish-eaters of the 
north-west coast it has no meaning, or if it has it 
appears to be utterly disregarded. 

A. (Tolmie.*) Amongst the interior tribes, 
in primitive times, breaches of chastity on the 
part either of married or unmarried females were 
often punished with death, inflicted either by 
the brother or husband. Amongst the fish- 
eating tribes of the rivers and coast chastity was 
less esteemed. A vast deterioration in this re- 
spect has taken place amongst all the Indian 
tribes since the influx of whites amongst them. 

Q. What are the ceremonies and practices 
connected with marriage? 

A. (Anderson. ) Interchange of presents chiefly 
and a purchase-money accruing to the father of 
the bride. Among certain tribes a kind of ap- 



234 INDIAN WOOING. 

prenticeship is exacted, in hunting or otherwise, 
from the bridegroom. 

A. (Tolmie.) The suitor does not court, but 
when he has made a selection he sends his 
mother or aunt to the damsel with a proposal, 
to which she made no reply. The parents 
are then referred to, and should they have 
consented, the suitor w r atches for the damsel 
at the accustomed watering place and proposes 
to her. The consent being given, the suitor, 
accompanied by his friends, dressed in their best, 
and driving loose horses, goes to the parents' 
lodge. They then strip off their fine clothes, 
obtaining old ones in return, and allow the 
bride's friends to select horses from the band 
driven up. Soon after, the bride's friends, ar- 
rayed in their best, carry the bride on a robe to 
her future husband's lodge, and exchanging there 
their good clothes for old ones, leave without 
making any return for the horses received. 
Should the woman be badly used by her husband 
she is taken home by her mother or aunt, the 
father and brothers scrupulously avoiding inter- 
ference. Interchange of presents is the inva- 
riable rule, a preponderance going to the bride's 
parents. At Milbank the ceremonies, which are 
tedious, are performed on a platform resting on 



HOW THEY TREAT WIDOWS. 235 

two canoes afloat, and surrounded by canoes of 
participants and spectators. 

Q. Is polygamy permitted, and is divorce ever 
tolerated ? 

A. (Anderson.) Polygamy is universal, re- 
gulated simply by the facilities for subsistence. 
Divorce is on the principle, as among all barbar- 
ous tribes, of stet pro ratione voluntat. But then 
the danger of objections on the part of the re- 
latives is imminent. 

Q. How are widows treated? 

A. (Anderson.) A rigid mourning is exacted 
amongst most tribes, except along the north- 
west coast, where frequently the females are 
dominant and exercise the privileges of chieftan- 
ship. 

A. (Tolmie.) -If the Sailish widow behaves 
well she is treated well by the mother-in-law. In 
about two years, or when her shorn locks regain 
their wonted length, her mother-in-law points out 
the relative of the deceased she ought to marry; 
should she consent she is stillregarded as a relative, 
but in case of refusal she is turned out of doors 
and deprived of all the deceased's property. 

Q. Are they long or short-lived? 

A. (Anderson.) A hard question to answer. 
Instances of extreme longevity are, however, 



236 GOiTKE NOT KNOWN WEST. 

very rare. As a general rule I think the scrip- 
tural limit is rarely exceeded. 

Q. Have they any contagious disease, or any 
endemic disease, or goitre, pelagra, plica, and the 
like? 

A. (Anderson.) Goitre does not exist on this 
side of the rocky mountains. On the Saskat- 
chewan and Pine River it is common. 

A. (Tolmie.) No goitre known west of the 
rocky mountains. 

Q. How do they generally dispose of the dead ; 
and are implements, articles of clothing, food, &c., 
&c., deposited with the dead? 

A. (Anderson.) Among some tribes by burn- 
ing, among others by burial in the ground, 
or depositing in canoes or boxes above the 
surface. Offerings are frequently deposited 
about the places of sepulture, and sacrifices of 
horses (and where slavery exists, of slaves) are 
made. 

A. (Tolmie.) The Indians dispose of their 
dead by interment or burning, or in canoes placed 
on trees, or rocks, according to the nature of the 
country. The carrier Indians of New Caledonia, 
and the Chimmesyans on the coast, and other 
tribes speaking their language, burn the dead. 
In New Caledonia, at the burning, the widow in 



SYSTEMS OF SEPULTURE. 237 

former days was thrust into the flames and 
severely scorched when the body of her husband 
was being consumed. She afterwards had to 
carry his ashes in a bag on her shoulders for two 
years, during which period she was the servant or 
drudge of his relatives. Thereafter the ashes of 
a chief were placed in an ornamented box or urn, 
which was never suffered to touch the ground, 
being fitted to rest on the end of a pole, stuck in 
front of the lodge occupied by the relatives of 
the deceased person. The other tribes in New 
Caledonia bury their dead. The carriers held 
triennial feasts in honour of deceased heroes, 
when the manly acts of the departed were 
rehearsed to the assembled guests. Women 
occasionally presided at these feasts. Sailish. 
Along with Indians of note were interred the 
weapons they had used, buffalo robes, and the 
pipe and hat used by deceased ; also a bundle of 
mocassins. At the burial of a Sailish chief the 
ceremonies were curious ; the bravest woman of 
the tribe, one used to carrying ammunition to the 
warrior when engaged in fight, bared her breast 
to the person who for courage and conduct was 
deemed fit successor to the departed. From the 
breast he cut a small portion, which he threw in 
the fire. She then cut a small piece from the 



238 THE BURIED HAT. 

shoulder of the warrior, which was also thrown 
into the fire. A piece of bitter root, with a piece 
of meat, were next thrown into the fire, all these 
being intended as offerings to the Sun, the deity 
of the Flatheads. The war pipe was then 
smoked by the assembled multitude, and thus the 
ceremony ended, except in cases where horses 
were killed. The burying of the hat was 
a great affair, there having been attached 
to it a piece of red cloth, six inches wide and 
six yards long, adorned with ermine skin, 
fringed with the wing feathers of the rocky 
mountain eagle, and having the tail as its ap- 
pendage. When scouting in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the enemy, a Blackfoot or 
Flathead chief would ride at full gallop so near 
the foe as to flap in their faces the eagle's tail 
streaming behind, yet no one dared seize the tail 
or streamer, it being considered sacrilegious and 
fraught with misfortune to touch it. The chief 
was often shot during these Balaklava gallops, 
when a contest would ensue for the body and 
gaudy gear, such as, if all tales be true, once oc- 
curred on the plain of Troy for the body of 
Patroclus. At Nesqually I have known the re- 
mains of several bodies of relatives disinterred 
at different places, washed and re-enveloped in 



IDEAS OF A FUTURE STATE. 239 

blankets, &c., after which they were again buried 
in one grave. 

Q. Is there any subsequent visitation of the 
dead ? whether are they disposed of separately or 
in conjunction with other bodies? 

A. (Anderson.) Yes, by the widow mourning 
for her husband, the husband for the wife, or the 
parent for the child. Human nature, whether 
under a tawny skin or a white one, is equally the 
same. 

Q. What is the received idea respecting a 
future state? does it bear the character of trans- 
migration, invisible existence about their ac- 
customed haunts, or removal to a distant 
abode ? 

A. (Tolmie.} The Indian notions of a future 
state are, as far as I have been able to learn, dim 
and indistinct, but that they have notions of the 
kind is evidenced by the placing of bundles of 
mocassins in the grave as if for a journey, and 
the killing of horses, and of slaves, on the coast, 
to accompany the deceased. The Flatheads 
(Sailish and Kalleespelm), it is said, believed the 
Sun to be the Supreme Being, and that after 
death the good, i. e. the brave and generous, 
went to the Sun, while the bad remained 
near the earth and troubled the living; others 



240 A STRANGE BELIEF. 

supposed that the worthless ceased to exist at 
death. 

They believed, along with the Nesquallies, 
Yakimas, and as far as I know all the tribes, 
that beasts,, fishes, and, at least, the edible roots 
of the vegetable kingdom, were once human 
beings. The Flathead tradition is that the son 
of the Sun came to the earth and compelled all 
these humans to swim across a lake of oil, on 
emerging from which they assumed their present 
forms, a reason being given for the particular 
shape and peculiarities of each. Bear, beaver, 
goose, &c. ; for instance, the bear crossed by div- 
ing, and is therefore fat ; the goose did not dive, 
and consequently has only fat on the neck and 
behind. 

Q. Can the origin of their dogs be traced 

< tj 

whence came the parent stock ? 

A. (Tolmie.)-Witli the Flatheads and Chini- 
syans, the tradition is that the son of the Sun was 
accompanied by a dog, when he came upon the 
earth. The latter do not say that the metamor- 
phosis of humans into beasts was caused by 
the son of the Sun. 

Q. Are the chiefs, whether of limited or ab- 
solute power, elective or hereditary? 

A. (Anderson.) Hereditary rank goes a great 



RIGHT OF CHIEFSIIIP. 241 

way, but riches generally carry the palm. In- 
stance : Lolo of Kamloops, formerly a scullion, 
now a so-called chief. 

A. (Tolmie.) The authority of the chiefs is 
limited, and depends greatly on individual force 
of character. On the coast, chiefship is hereditary 
by the female line. In the interior (Kliketat 
tribes and Flatheads), rank passes by the male 
line, but courage and ability are the best re- 
commendations to leadership amongst the tribes 
encountering the hostile Blackfoot every summer 
in the buffalo-country. 

Q. Have they any laws ? If so, how are they 
preserved? How is delinquency punished and 
how are judges constituted ? What are the crimes 
taken notice of by the laws ? Is there gradation 
or commutation of punishment? 

A. (Anderson.)- -Yes, i.e. Social Laws, which 
as a point of honour are generally well observed. 
Any dereliction is generally remedied by the 
ultima ratio. 

A. (Tolmie.'] No law but custom. Yery 
troublesome characters sometimes shot by agree- 
ment between a few leading men in a tribe. 
Medicine men the most frequent victims of this 
and of individual vengeance. They frequently 
avert further evil by retuminff fees when the 

%i C* 

VOL. II. li 



242 KEDSKINS AND THEIR DOCTORS. 

patient dies, or by large payments when accused 
by a dying man of having caused his illness. 
Rival practitioners get rid of each other by 
practising on the credulity of dying persons as 
to the originator of their ailments. Murder is 
oftener settled by payment of property to the 
victim's relatives than by retribution, yet occa- 
sionally retaliation ensues after a settlement. 

Q. Approximately the number of inhabitants ? 
Has the number sensibly varied, and within what 
period ? if so, from what causes ? 

A. (Anderson.) The population is perceptibly 
on the decrease. 

Q. Have they any mode of commemorating 
victories, by monuments, or hieroglyphics ? 

A. (Anderson.) Not apparently, at least tome. 

Q. Have they any sacred days or periods, any 
order of priests ; if so, are they hereditary, elective, 
or determined by any particular circumstance? 

A. (Tolmie.) The Flatheads offered sacri- 
fices to the sun on every solemn occasion, and 
the chief presided. 

Q. Is there any idea of an order of inferior 
spirits, i. e. of ghosts, fairies, &c., &c. ; of magic, 
witchcraft, or second sight? 

A. (Ande?*son.)-- r hey have. 

A. (Tolmie.) Their mythology is ample, 



BELIEF IN WITCHCRAFT. 243 

though little known, and their tales endless cf 
the ' olden time,' when the animals and fishes 
were human and gifted with speech. They 
believe in the return of the dead, in second sight, 
and very strongly in necromancy or witchcraft; 
hence their intense dread of powerful medicine 
men. It was formerly the custom for young men 
to seek supernatural gifts by seclusion in the 
wilderness and fasting. Some thus became suc- 
cessful hunters, gamblers, traders or hunters, as 
the gift might be, whilst to the more crafty and 
ill-disposed was vouchsafed the frequently fatal 
gift of imposing on their fellows the belief that 
they were 'medicine men ' or conjurers. 

Q. Have they any distinction of stars or con- 
stellations ? 

A. (Anderson.}- -The hunting tribes, like the 
Chaldean of old, are keen observers, and the 
order of the principal constellations is well ob- 
served by them in a rude way. 

A. (Tolmie.) They have names for several 
of the constellations. 

Q. How do they divide time with reference to 
the year? 

A. (Anderson.) Chiefly by the natural order 
of the seasons. That is, when the crane appears 
in its northward flight, the goose, the ripening of 

R 2 



244 AN ACCOUNT OF THE EIGHT TRIBES. 

the different berries, the arrival or spawning of 
the different fishes, &c., &c. 

A. (Tolmie.) They divide the year into sea- 
sons denoted by the opening of vegetation, the 
ripening of different wild fruits, the coming in 
season of roots and of fish, the fall of the leaf and 
the setting in of winter. 

I subsequently wrote .to Dr. Tolmie to ob- 
tain for me a vocabulary of the Nesqually dia- 
lects, and at the same time requested him to 
give me the results of his valuable know 1 edge 
relative to the eight tribes speaking the Kliketat 
lano-ua^e. I insert the letter the Dr. was good 
enough to favour me with in reply, as it contains 
such highly valuable information : 

' Nesqually, March 14, 1859. 

' My dear Mr. Lord, 

'With the best possible intentions, it was out 
of my power to get the vocabulary, &c., ready 
for the departure of the " Otter," and as time now 
presses I will at once plunge in medias res names 
of tribes speaking the Kliketat language, or 
dialects thereof, with statement of the district 
they each occupy. 

'1. Whulwhypum, wooded and prairie coun- 
try between Vancouver and the Dalles, W.T. 
(Wascopam) base of Mount Hood. 



WHULWHYPUM, ETC., ROBBERS. 245 

' 2. Tait-inapum. Base of Mount St. Helens, 
and headwaters of Cowlibz and Lewis rivers. 

'3. Pisliwanwapum (Yakima). Yakimaw, or 
Eyakema on Arrowsmith's map, valley. 

' 4. Walla Wallapum. Walla- walla River and 
neighbourhood. 

' 5. Wy-eilat (or Kyoose). Country running 
to the south of Walla- walla. 

' 6. Umatilla. Umatallow R. ( Arrowsmith) 
and country extending thence westward to 
Dalles. 

' 7. Peloose. Entrance of Great Snake River 
and surrounding country. 

' 8. Wyampam. Falls of the Columbia above, 
and near the Dalles. 

' I cannot give the numbers of these tribes, 
but would say at a venture, that in all they could 
not turn out more than 2000 able-bodied men. 
In former times, prior to the advent of whites, the 
Whulwhypum used to plunder and kidnap the 
Chinooks of the Columbia River, whose country 
extended from the Dalles to the ocean ; and the 
Pishwanwapum, better known by the name given 
them by the Colville Indians, " Yakimaw," did 
the same to the Nesquallies, Puyallips, and other 
tribes dwelling 011 Puget's Island. By the Chi- 
nooks, the Whulwhypum were called Kliketat, 



246 THE KLIKETATS. 

and by the Puget's Sound Indians the Yakiniaws 
are called " Stobshaddat," both words signifying 
robber or plunderer. On Puget's Sound the term 
is likewise applied to any Indians out on a raid. 
As the Whulwhypum dwelling on the prairies to 
the east and north of Vancouver became first 
known to the whites the Hudson's Bay people 
of Vancouver as " Kliketats," as the term was 
euphonised, so this name has of late been applied 
to the language, and to all Indians speaking it. 

' The Kliketats the term is used collectively 
being excellent hunters, had within the last 
quarter of a century extended themselves through- 
out the Walarnet vallev and as far southward as 

/ 

the confines of California,, becoming rich by 
supplying the American settlers in these countries 
with venison and horses. The Kliketats. although 

' O 

getting the upper hand of the aboriginal owners 
of these new hunting grounds, did not settle per- 
manently therein, but in small parties were con- 
tinually revisiting their native lands. In 1854, 
the territorial government of Oregon compelled 
these Indians to return to their homes, and with- 
draw permanently from southern Oregon, where 
their presence was annoying to the settlers. In 
1855 they were treated with for the sale of their 
lands, which gave rise to the Indian war of 



THEIR FOOD. 247 

1855-56, in which the Kliketats bore a principal 
part. 

' Prior to the war of 1855, the Kliketats had 
many horses. Some chiefs, such as Peopeomuse- 
muse, counted their hundreds. The tradition is 
that horses were obtained from the southward, 
and that the Kliketats have not been for many 
generations in possession of them. 

' In their own country, the Kliketats lived on 
salmon, and to no great extent by the chase, game 
being scarce. The principal root used by them 
as food is the peahay, a bitter root which has an 
" elegant " bitter taste, and boils into a farina- 
ceous jelly; next is the n'poolthla, which they 
grind into flour; again, the "mamun" and seek- 
ywa, which they knead into white cakes and 
use as biscuit; these also have a bitter flavour; 
lastly, the kamass, formerly Scilla esculenta, but 
now " kamassia," I believe. The " calz "* which 
you saw here is also used as food by the 
Kliketats. They used, before the war, to culti- 
vate potatoes and maize, and some of the chiefs 
had horned cattle. 

' I have never been able to find that the Indians 
of North West America, Kliketats or others, had 

* Calz, a kind of wild sun-flower, the root of which is 
dried in the sun, and then consumed as an esculent. 



248 BELIEVE IN FAMILIAR SPIRITS. 

originally any form of worship. They have, how- 
ever, still a belief in familiar spirits in Chinook, 
" Tamanowash," whom they address when in dif- 
ficulty. They consider that supernatural aid, or 
1 Tamanowash,' may be obtained for five objects, 
namely, the cure or infliction of disease, skill in 
hunting, and in gambling, courage, and invul- 
nerability; lastly, success in the acquisition of 
property. 

' A youth desirous of obtaining " Tamanowash " 
must adhere to strict cleanliness of person, and 
must abstain from sexual intercourse, as indispen- 
sible preliminaries; he must also leave the parental 
lodge of an evening and sleep by the shore of 
some distant and lonely lake, or in some other 
secluded place, night after night, until during 
sleep the Tamanowash communicates with him. 
By this way of acting, on returning to the lodge 
in the morning the parents know whether or not 
the son has been successful in his night's quest. 
Either the ambition of the sire, the son, or of 
both, will prompt to perseverance in trial. It is 
an Indian belief that when an Indian dies, or is 
killed, his TamanoAvash passes to his son. 

' Some say they have a grizzly bear as Tamano- 
wash, others a woodpecker, the invulnerables an 
oak, and so on ad infinitum. 



KILLING SLAVES FOR THE DEAD. 2-19 

' Most of the Kliketats flatten the forehead, but 
not so much as the Chinooks or Puget Sound 
Indians do. I am. decidedly of opinion that the 
flattening of the cranium has no injurious effect 
on the adult brain. Infants undergoino; the 

<D O 

process occasionally suffer, when undue pres- 
sure has been applied. 

' The Indians of the present day have learnt 
the whiteman's belief in a future state of exist- 
ence beyond the grave, and the more reflecting 
seem to accept it with great satisfaction. When 
asked why the practice holds amongst them of 
burying property with the dead, and killing horses 
and even white slaves over the graves, the reply 
is that they follow the customs of their fore- 
fathers, who they think must have had a glim- 
mering belief in a future state, and wished the 
property, &c., to be with the deceased whereso- 
ever placed. 

' I should at an earlier stage have mentioned 
that the Wyeilat, or Kyoose, are considered for the 
numbers as the most formidable and warlike 
tribe of the interior, save the "Flatheads," living 
east of Colville, and who do not flatten the head. 
These Wyeilat are not properly Kliketats, but 
interlopers to the southward, it is supposed ; their 
original language now almost extinct, as the 



250 THE THREE SKULLS. 

elders die off, having affinity with that of the 
carriers of North Caledonia and the Umpqua 
Indians of Southern Oregon. 

' I must now conclude this very hurried epistle, 
which I should have taken more time about had 
you not desired to have the vocabulary ere the 
departure of the " Princess Royal." 

1 1 am, my dear Sir, 

' Very truly yours, 
1 W. F. TOLMIE. 

'John K. Lord, Esq.' 

An illustration attached to this work re- 
presents three Spokan Indians, photographed 
at Fort Colville. The celt made of flint, 
also figured in the illustration page, the finest 
mounted specimen at present in the British 
Museum collection, I obtained from the Indian 
on the left side of the group. They had no 
history of it further than that it was of great 
age, and had been handed down from chief to 
chief for many generations. 

The skulls* are drawn from three at present 
in the British Museum collection. The one 
altered, from circular pressure, was the skull I 
obtained at Fort Rupert; the flattened skull is 

* Vide illustration : An Indian Burial Ground. 



AN ORIGINAL BABY-JUMPER. 251 

from Vancouver Island ; the unaltered one from 
Fort Colville. The system of flattening the head 
has been so frequently described that it is almost 
unnecessary to repeat it here. The cradle is 
figured from one in the British Museum collection, 
with the board arranged for making the pressure. 
The ' baby -jumper ' is a very simple contrivance ; 
a stick, springy like a fishing rod. is stuck obliquely 
into the ground with a string attached to the end 
of it; when the baby cries from the pain caused 
by the pressure, the mother hangs the cradle to 
the end of the stick, then jerking the string 
keeps up a bobbing motion that appears to lull 
and sooth the little sufferer to sleep. I quite 
agree with Dr. Tolmie in thinking altering the 
head in no way detracts from mental capacity; 
it only alters the shape of the box, it does not 
lessen its size. The various systems of hunting 
and fishing are already given in describing ani- 
mals, and how fish are captured by Indians. 

The illustrations are drawn from photographs. 
The one with two figures* represents a pure- 
blooded Indian, one of the Flathead tribe, who be 
it remembered do not in any way alter the form 
of the skull. The Flathead is the figure seated ; 

* Vide illustration : Two Indians photgraphed at Fort 
Colville, a pure Indian and half-breed. 



252 THE INDIAN BOW. 

the other standing is a half breed, an employee 
of the Hudson's Bay Company ; his father was a 
French Canadian, his mother a Cree squaw. 

The illustration in which there are three figures 
represents three Spokan Indians;* one, the figure 
to the left, has a stone celt, which I obtained ; it 
is now in the British Museum collection, and 
deemed the finest specimen they possess. There 
was no record as to how it became his property, 
all I could glean respecting its history was that 
for a long period it had been handed down from 
father to son as a valuable heirloom ; hereditary 
inheritance I find with Indians, as with whites, is 
weak to resist the all-potent dollar. The centre 
figure holds a rifle, which was not his own, but 
borrowed from Macdonald, the chief trader, for the 
occasion. The figure 011 the right has a bow and 
arrow, both of which were also purchased. The 
Indian bow is a masterpiece of skilful manufac- 
ture ; its elasticity does not in any way depend 
on the wood used in its construction, but 011 the 
elastic ligament, procured from the fore leg of 
the elk ; this is affixed to the wooden framework 
of the bow by a kind of glue made from the skin 
of the ' white ' salmon, a glue when hardened 
resisting the influence of wet to redissolve it. 

* Vide illustration : Three Spokan Indians. 



LODGES AND CANOES. 253 

This elastic back to the wood acts as would an 
india-rubber band ; the bow when bent takes an 
arrow about a yard in length, which it propels 
with a force equal, for a short range, to that of 
a rifle bullet. When an Indian shoots, five or six 
arrows are held in the left hand, and as the string, 
which is made of tendon, is hauled back, the right 
hand brings with it an arrow ; this one fired, 
another arrow is seized, and as rapidly as one 
could reasonably count, the six arrows held in the 
lei't hand are discharged. Had I my choice of 
weapons I should much rather encounter a savage 
armed with a trade gun than with a bow and 
arrows. Spare arrows are carried in a quiver 
made from the skin of their medicine animal, 
or ' Tamanowash.' 

Flint heads for the arrows were once exclu- 
sively used, but since the Indians have acquired 
a knowledge of iron they employ it in preference 
to stone. But the trade gun has now in a great 
measure superseded the use of the bow and 
arrows. 

Their lodges and canoes differ very much. 
The coast tribes live generally during winter in 
large sheds made of plank ; three or four sheds 
often contain a whole colony, and constitute an 
Indian village. These sheds are before des- 



254 THE PATTERNS ON THE MATS. 

cribed in the trip to Fort Rupert. They use 
lodges, or in other words, conical tents, when 
fishing and moving from place to place, during 
the summer; these lodges generally consist of 
poles covered with mats. The Sumass and 
Chilukweyuk Indians frequently use rush mats ; 
the rushes are harvested, and brought from lono; 

7 o O 

distances, then carefully dried in the sun ; when 
dry they are sewn together with long needles 
made of hard wood varying in length from six 
feet to four inches, threaded with cord twisted 
from the smaller rushes; mats thus made are 
perfectly rain-proof. The coast Indians usually 
cover their summer lodges with mats made from 
the inner bark of the Cedar (Thuja gigantea}. 
These mats are platted together and exactly 
resemble bas, or matting, as it is usually called. 

In platting the bark they manage to produce 
very beautiful patterns to ornament their mats ; 
and as different tribes adopt each a pattern of its 
own, an Indian can readily tell to which tribe any 
particular mat belonged. Specimens of the rush 
and cedar bark mats are in the Indian collec- 
tion of the British Museum, brought home by 
myself. 

The inland tribes, as a rule, live winter and 
summer in lodges ; some of the poorer tribes use 







I Mil AX 



KOOTANIE AND OTHER CANOES. '255 

rush mats, but the wealthier ones have the skin 
lodge shown in the illustration.* These are by 
far the best lodges used. The poles are covered 
with the skins of either deer or buffalo, sewed 
together with tendon, and the top is constructed 
to move round in accordance with the wind, thus 
avoiding the blinding effects of the wood smoke. 
The fire is placed on the ground in the centre 
of the lodge, and the inmates squat round it, or 
when sleeping arrange themselves like the spokes 
in a wheel, their feet to the fire and their heads 
towards the sides of the lodge. A good skin lodge 
is worth 50 dollars, 101. The reader will get a 
clearer idea of the rush and skin lodge by com- 
paring the lodge shown in the sketch of Symuk- 
wateen with the three shown in the illustration 
' Indian Lodges.' 

The canoes also are of various kinds ; the canoe 
used by the Kootanies, described in a preceding 
chapter, is the general form of the bark canoe 
employed on all the rivers inland ; on the coast and 
up the Fraser River the canoes are all dug-outs, 
that is, made from a solid piece of wood hollowed 
and shaped to the desired pattern. The Fraser 
canoe has the bow and stern different to the canoes 
used by the Van Island Indians. These again 

* Vide illustration: ludiau Lodges. 



256 HOW INDIANS EXPAND A CANOE. 

differ from the Nianirnos as the Nianimos differ 
from the Fort Rupert, Queen Charlotte Islanders, 
and the various coast Indians. 

Making a ' dug-out ' requires great skill and 
patience. She must float evenly, be right in her 
lines, not too thick or too thin, and bilged at the 
sides to give breadth and sufficiency of beam. A 
small kind of steel adze is used nowaday, but 
in old times the Indians had only stone imple- 
ments or tools, and with these managed to chop 
down trees, hew them into planks, and make 
canoes ('dugouts') as they make them now in the 
iron age. When the canoe is hollowed and shaped, 
it has then to be widened at the sides. This the 
savages ingeniously accomplish by first filling the 
canoe with water, then plunging red-hot stones into 
the water until it reaches to near the boiling-point ; 
then sticks are forced in betwixt the sides, and 
the canoe allowed to cool; a second time the 
process is repeated, and so on again and again, 
until the desired expansion is accomplished. 

I saw canoes at Fort Rupert ('dug outs') 
seventy feet long, that would carry thirty fighting 
men over a moderately rough sea as safely as a 
boat. The canoes and paddles are all painted 
with bright colours, red predominating ; the device 
being generally the ' arms,' if I may so express 



A ' COPPER.' 257 

it, of the tribe. Some use an eye, others an 
eagle's head, others a frog; indeed, nearly every 
tribe adopts some rude heraldic symbol, but for 
what purpose I could not discover. 

When staying at Fort Rupert I saw, by mere 
chance, what the Hudson's Bay trader called an 
' Indian copper.' lie told me that it was only on 
very high festivals that it was ever produced, and 
that its value to the tribe was estimated to be 15 
slaves, equal to 200 blankets. 

This wonderful ' medicine ' was contained in a 
wooden case, most elaborately ornamented on its 
exterior with differently-shaped pieces of nacre 
neatly inlaid, brass-headed nails, and pieces of 
bone. The inside was lined with the softest kind 
of cedar-bark. The ' copper ' was 2 feet 4^ inches 
in length, wider at one end than the other, the 
wider end 1 foot 6^ inches ; and brilliantly 
painted, representing all sorts of curiously-shaped 
devices ; interspersed amongst them were eyes of 
all sizes. It was made from a solid piece of 
native copper, that had been hammered flat. 
The trader also told me that some imitation ' cop- 
pers ' had been made for the Company and offered 
to the Indians, but nothing would induce them 
either to purchase or have them as a gift. What 
use this ' copper ' is I cannot tell, unless it is a kind 

VOL. II. S 



258 ROOT BASKETS WATERTIGHT. 

of standard similar to our regimental colours. It 
belongs to the tribe, not to the chief, and is kept 
by the ' medicine-men ' or doctors, rain-makers, 
and scoundrels in general. 

Not the least curious of the Coast Indian cus- 
toms is that of masking. Imitations of the most 
hideous monsters conceivable are carved for 
masks from cedar- wood, and by a clumsy arrange- 
ment of strings these masks are made to roll the 
eyes, and open and shut the mouth. They use 
them when dancing, the only music a kind of 
drum or tambourine, hung round with the beaks 
of the sea-parrot, which rattle as the instrument 
is shaken and beat. Some cover their heads 
with swans-down, and as they bow to their 
partner, small portions fly off and settle on him ; 
and this sending the down upon the opposite 
dancer is considered the great skill of the per- 
formance. 

The Bella-hoo-la Indians, a tribe that resides 
on the banks of the Salmon river, make very 
beautiful baskets from the fine roots of the cedar; 
they also make hats and watertight vessels from 
the same material. The baskets are called Zei- 
lus-qua. 

The Indian cradle (Spat-zun) is made from cedar. 
Immediately after birth, the infant is subjected 



A CURIOUS BEVERAGE. 259 

to the process of flattening the head ; a pad or 
compress is first put on the forehead, then ban- 
daged tightly. The baby during this process is 
strapped into the cradle; a long timber pole 
placed obliquely, one end being fixed firmly in 
the ground, serves to hang the cradle on. Thus 
suspended, the child is kept continually jumped, 
by a string fastened to the lower end of the cradle 
and tugged at by a squaw. This primitive baby- 
jumper evidently lulls the poor little sufferer, the 
victim of an absurdly barbarous fashion. This 
pressure is continued at intervals until the child 
is able to run about. Other tribes make the 
pressure round the head, and thus elevate the 
vertex or crown so as to resemble a sugarloaf. 

At their festivities, the Fort Rupert Indians 
use a most curious drink, which is thus prepared. 
They gather the berries of the vaccinium in the 
summer, before they are quite ripe, and press them 
into a firm cake about half an inch thick ; this is 
carefully dried in the sun, and wrapped in bark. 
When this cake is to be used, about five ounces 
of it are placed in a large vessel, and a small quan- 
tity of cold water added. It is then stirred 
rapidly round and round with the hand, which 
must be perfectly free from grease, squeezed, and 
worked into a pastelike form ; then more water is 



s '2 



260 DECORATING THE GRAVE. 

added, and the rapid stirring continued. It now 
begins to look exactly like soapsuds, and the 
more it is worked about the more frothy it be- 
comes. In this frothy state it is drank. All who 
intend indulging in this foggy-fuddle come armed 
with immense wooden spoons ; then they ladle 
and drink, until, nearly bursting, they shamble off 
to the water, a drink of which appears to allay the 
distention this fuddling occasions. I have often 
tasted it, but cannot say I like it ; it has a dis- 
agreeably bitter flavour, suggestive of physic; and 
though stirred with a female hand, still the idea 
of dirt is so associated in my mind with Indians, 
that I could never get over the feeling that the 
fingers might have been previously used for other 
purposes, and the process of washing them for- 
gotten. The dog's-hair blankets I have described 
in the chapter on Dogs. 

The ' Indian Burial Ground' (vide illustration) 
was drawn from a photograph. The huge figures, 
carved from solid trees, are placed round the 
boxes in order to keep away evil spirits ; small tin 
vessels, pieces of coloured cloth, the skins of small 
animals, and all kinds of odds and ends, are hung 
by the relatives of the dead on the boxes contain- 
ing the body. One thing they never failto do that 
is, to bore the bottom of the tin cups or vessels 



FLINT IMPLEMENTS. 261 

full of holes : thus rendered useless no one will 
steal them. Scattered on the ground are flint im- 
plements once used by the Indians, and the three 
skulls before spoken of. The one to the left is 
that of the chief, brought from Fort Rupert 
(vide trip to Fort Rupert, Vol. I.), showing 
the effect of circular pressure ; the middle one is 
an unaltered head from the Upper Columbia; 
whilst that on the left shows the effect of flat- 
tening the forehead. 



262 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DEPARTURE FROM FORT COLVILLB VANCOUVER ISLAND CRABS. 

WE left Fort Colville in April. The snow was still 
on the ground, and everything very sloppy and 
wet. During the winter grain was taken out in 
sleighs, and distributed at different stations along 
the route. This enabled the Commission to start 
much earlier, as the mules by this arrangement 
were not dependant on grass. We followed the 
same course on our return as we did on coming 
up, a route already described. At Walla-walla 
we transferred all the mules and horses to some 
persons to whom the Commissioner had sold 
them, embarked in the steamer, reached the 
Dalles thence the Cascades, Fort Vancouver, and 
Portland, from which place the ocean-steamer 
took us to Vancouver Island to await shipment 
to England. I added many things to my collec- 
tion during this time, amongst them a variety of 
crustaceans (vide illustration). 

On my return I submitted them to Mr. Spence 








VAXroVVKK IM \X1> I'UAIi.V 



Fig. 1. Petalocerus bicornia. 
2. Chlurodius iinln-it-alus 
, 3. Pugettia Lordii. 



I'ii.'. t. I'latj-carcinus reciirvidcns. 
., -"> ' (i t'^iniin, liiiiL'iin:! n:t 
.. <i. Cryptolilhodei altatissura. 



VANCOUVER ISLAND CRABS. 263 

Bates, F.R.S., who named and described the 
new and other species ; I append the report he 
very kindly sent me. 

(The new species of crustaceans, collected on 
the east side of Vancouver Island, were some of 
them dredged in from eight to ten fathoms water ; 
the rest were collected between tidemarks). 

Mr. Spence Bates says, in speaking of the col- 
lection generally : ' The extremely opposite and 
varied localities in which many of the species 
here represented have hitherto been found, 
suggest the idea that Vancouver Island corres- 
ponds with the extreme limit between a northern 
and a tropical fauna. It is only in this way I 
can account for finding the representatives of 
tropical species with others that are found only 
(on the eastern coast of Asia) in the Arctic and, 
perhaps, North Atlantic Oceans.' That he is 
quite correct in this assumption I think there can 
be no doubt ; for not only does it apply to the 
crustaceans, but with equal force to all the 
molluscous groups. Several new species of 
shells, collected at the same time and in the same 
localities as the crustaceans, which were named 
and described by Dr. Baird, with appended notes 
by myself, and published in the Zoological 
Society's Proceedings for the year 1864, are 



* 
264 TIDAL IRREGULAEITIES. 

identical in some cases ; in others closely allied to 
known species from Japan, Australia, and the 
shores of our own island. 

The tidal irregularities of this coast are per- 
fectly inexplicable. In May, June, and July, 
during the twenty-four hours, there is but one 
high and one low water. At the change and fall 
of the moon, high-tide happens near midnight, 
and varies but little as to time during these 
three months. In August, September, and Octo- 
ber there are two high and two low tides in the 
twenty-four hours. Then in the winter months 
(November, December, and January) the regular 
twelve-hour tides recur; but high water is at 
twelve o'clock in the day, instead of twelve 
at night. The spring-tides range from ten to 
twelve feet, the neaps from five to eight. 

The temperature of the sea, taken during the 
summer months near the surface, ranges from 
52 to 56 F. The sea-water seldom, I may say 
never, looks clear, but always presents a turbid 
muddy appearance, as if a large quantity of sand 
was mixed with it. This may in some measure 
be accounted for by assuming that strong under- 
currents flow from north to south, and sweeping 
past the island, and being (from their low speci- 
fic gravity) close to the bottom, stir up sand and 



PUGETTIA LORDII. 265 

mud. The sea-bottom in and adjacent to the 
numerous bays, harbours, and long canals which, 
like the fiords of Norway and Sweden, every- 
where intersect the mainland and inland coasts 
varies in accordance with the character of the 
bounding rocks : where trap, soft clay slates, or 
felspathic rocks form the coast-line, a thick blue 
clay is the usual bottom; where grit and sand- 
stones, there it is sandy. 

Little, if indeed anything, is as yet known of 
the deep-sea productions from the west side of 
the Island, which will afford a rich harvest to 
future explorers. 

PUGETTIA LORDII, N. S. Carapace quadrate 
behind the orbits; the anterior portion abruptly 
narrowing, and produced into a double rostrum, 
the horns of which divaricate. The anterior 
extremity of the orbital margin is produced to a 
sharp point that is, elevated slightly above the 
beak; the posterior extremity is defined by a 
distinct fissure. The anterior hepatic region is 
produced by a tooth immediately posterior to 
the postorbital fossa, laterally extended to an 
obtuse tooth or point, and posteriorly separated 
from the branchial regions by a decided fossa or 
lateral constriction. The branchial region is 
laterally produced to a strong anteriorly-curved 



260 SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION. 

point. The dorsal surface is tolerably smooth, 
exhibiting but faintly the markings of the internal 
viscera. The 'eyes are small, and reach but little 
beyond the orbital margin. The external 
antennas have the first joint fused with the cara- 
pace, the second and third compressed and arcu- 
ate, and terminate in a smooth flagellum. 

The first pair of pereiopoda are moderately 
long, having the meros triangulate, the upper angle 
forming a prominent carina, that extends along 
but terminates abruptly a little short of both 
extremities of the joint ; the carpus is tricarinated ; 
the propodos is laterally compressed, and forms 
about half the length of the limb, and is about 
one-third its breadth. The dactylos is slightly 
curved and slightly serrated on the inner margin, 
and antagonises at the extremity with the pro- 
duced propodos. The second pair of pereiopoda 
are nearly as long as the first, but much more 
slender, having the meros and propodos subcari- 
nated. The three posterior pairs are shorter. 
The pleon is small and narrow, the second and 
third segments being the broadest; while the 
seventh is abruptly narrower than the sixth, and 
forms a triangular plate. The female differs 
from the male in being more protuberant over 
the stomachal region, and consequently the ros- 



WHERE FOUND. 267 

trum is more depressed ; anteriorly, there is less 
development of the lateral branchial teeth, and 
there is a relatively greater distance between the 
fifth pair of pereiopoda. The pleon is almost 
circular, and covers the entire surface of the 
ventral region. 

The colour of the animal is of a reddish-brown, 
which increases in brightness as it approaches 
towards the extremity of the chelaB. In one or 
two young females the carapace was smooth and 
glabrous. 

Found in tolerable abundance in Esquimalt 
and Victoria Harbours, and, indeed, in all the 
sheltered inlets along the mainland coasts from 
the mouth of the Fraser to San Francisco. 
Dredged in about eight fathoms of water, but 
easily obtained in pools at extremely low tides. 
Its favourite haunt is under a large flat stone, or 
hid under the seaweed that fringes the margin 
of a pool. The specimen from which the draw- 
ing was made was taken in Esquimalt Harbour. 

SAYAS LYRATUS (DANA). N. S. Explor. Exp. p. 80, pi. i., 
fig. 1. From the Straits of Georgia, U. S. 

OREGONIA LONGIMANA, N. S. Pereiopoda prima in longi- 
tudine bis carapacis. 

Carapace coarsely granulated or minutely 
tuberculated, free from hairs, except upon the 



268 OREGONIA LONGIMANA. 

rostrum, which is slender, and twice the length 
of the interorbital space. Pleon in the male 
narrow, concave upon each side, corresponding 
with the fourth, fifth, and sixth segments. Tel- 
son rather broader than the preceding segment, 
and emarginate at the terminal extremity. The 
first pair of pereiopoda are very long, being 
twice the length of the carapace, and much longer 
than in either of the species described by Dana 
and Stimpson. The meros reaches quite to the 
extremity of the rostrum, and is furnished with 
two or more longitudinal rows of small granulated 
tubercles; the propodos is rather longer than 
the meros, and its breadth is equal to about one- 
third of its length; the dactylos is about one- 
third the length of the propodos, slightly curved, 
and minutely serrated on the inner margin, which 
impinges throughout its entire length upon the 
produced extremity of the propodos. The three 
succeeding pairs of pereiopoda are imperfect in 
the only specimens procured, but the last pair 
are long, cylindrical, slender, and terminated in 
a powerful dactylos. 

This crab was obtained in Esquimalt Harbour, 
and in its habits and general distribution are 
very similar to the preceding. 



PLATYCAECINUS EECUKVIDENS. 269 

OREGONIA GRACILIS (DANA). Sill. Am. Jour. Sec. 2, x. 
Taken in from eight to ten fathoms water, in Esquinialt Harbour, 
Straits of Georgia. 

OREGONIA HIRTA (DANA). Sill. Am. Jour. Sec. 2, xi. 
p. 270. Straits of Georgia, U. S. 

CANCER PRODUCTUS (RANDAL). Esquinialt Harbour. 

PLATYCARCINUS RECURVIDENS, N. S. Dentes ante- 
rioris lateralis regionis habeus noveru recurves et granulatos. 

This very pretty species may easily be dis- 
tinguished by the sharp points of the inner 
lateral teeth, granulated or minutely baecated 
along the margin, and having the apex recurved. 
The intraorbital margin is three-lobed and granu- 
lated, the centre lobe being the smallest. The 
dorsal surface of the carapace is granulated on 
the prominent lobes in the larger specimens, but 
almost smooth in the young. The first pair of 
pereiopoda have also lines of granulations along 
the outer surface of the propodos and carpus. 

Dana has merged this ;enus into that of 

o O 

Cancer, but the greater length of the animal in 
relation to its breadth is a very convenient 
generic diagnosis, and one that appears to cor- 
respond with Milne Edwards' description rela- 
tive to the more longitudinal position of the two 
pairs of antennae. 

The specimens were obtained in Esquinialt 
Harbour. It frequents pools between tide-marks ; 



270 CHLOEODIUS IMBRICATUS. 

and it is common everywhere along the Oregon 
and Vancouver Island coasts. 

ERIPHIA GONAGRA (EDWARDS). Hist, des Crust, folio 1, 
p. 426. Esquiinalt Harbour. 

PANOPCEUS CRENATUS (EDWAEDS and LUCAS). Esquimalt 
Harbour. 

XANTHO DISPAR (DANA). Esquimalt Harbour. 
XANTHO BELLA (STIMPSON). Esquimalt Harbour. 

CHLORODIUS IMBRICATUS, N. S. Anteriorem regionem 
carapacis habens imbricatani irregulariter ; posteriorem planam ; 
carpuin et propodon pereiopodimi paris prinii rugosa. 

Carapace having the posterior portion smooth, 
the anterior being rough with flattened promi- 
nences, that form an irregularly imbricated sur- 
face. Anterior margin five-toothed, the central 
tooth being the largest, the posterior the most 
prominent. A small secondary tooth stands 
upon the anterior surface of the fourth and fifth 
teeth. The first pair of pereiopoda are short and 
robust ; they have the carpus deeply corrugated 
upon the external surface; a slight rib is also 
present upon the carpus of each of the four suc- 
ceeding pairs of pereiopodos. 

Only a single specimen of this pretty little 
species was obtained. It was dredged in about 
eight fathoms of water, in Esquimalt Harbour. 



CRYPTOLITHODES TYPICUS. 271 

OCYPODE UEVULII (GTTERIN). Esquimalt Harbour. 
GRAPSUS LIVIDUS (DANA). Esquimalt Harbour. 

HEMIGRAPSUS SEDENTATUS (DANA). Between the tide- 
marks, Esquimalt Harbour. 

Dana records it from the island of St. Lorenzo, 
at Peru. It is remarkable for the great speed 
with which it runs across the dry sands to escape 
capture. 

GELASIMUS ANNULIPES (EDWARDS). Esquimalt Harbour. 

Dana records it from Singapore, East Indies, 
and Mr. Edwards from, the Indian Sea. 

PINNOTHERES FABA (DANA). Esquimalt Harbour, recorded 
by Dana from Puget's Sound. 

CRYPTOLITHODES TYPICUS. Brandt, Bull, de 1'Acad de St. 
Petersbourg-, 1849, vii. 175; Stirnpson, Crust. etEchin. of Pacific 
North America ; Journal of the Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist., vol. vi. 
p. 472, pi. 20. 

A specimen of this species, which was first 
described by Brandt, and afterwards more fully, 
as well as figured, by Stimpson, was taken in 
Rosario Strait, Vancouver Island, as well as in 
Upper California. 

The male, which has not hitherto been des- 
cribed, differs from the female in being less 
produced posteriorly. The posterior margin, 
instead of being projected in an arch inversely 



272 SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION. 

corresponding with that of the anterior margin, 
traverses a line that is nearly direct from side 
to side, slightly posterior to the points of the 
broadest diameter in the carapace. The pleon 
is triangular, and smaller and narrower than 
in the female, having the lateral margins more 
straight and symmetrical. 

O / 

The only male specimen in the collection is 
smaller than the female, and the surface generally 
more tuberculated. The right propoclos of 
the first pair of pereiopoda is larger than 
the left, and is so well developed as scarcely 
to be capable of being folded within the 
limits of the carapace. The length of the male 
animal, from the extremity of the rostrum to 
the centre of the posterior margin of the 
carapace, is about three-fourths of an inch; its 
breadth, from the point of one lateral extremity 
to the other, is about one inch and a quarter. 
The size of the largest female in the collection is 
in length about one inch and a quarter, and 
breadth about two inches. 



CRYPTOLITHODES ALTA-FISSURA, N. S. Foemina 
Carapax est dorsaliter Itevis ; rostrum quadratum ; oculo- 
rum alvei altae-fissurse ex utra parter ostri ; svmt pleou ex Lvva 
propodis par primus subcequalia et lama cum carinu supra 
dactylos. 



CRYPTOLITHODES ALTA-FISSUEA. 273 

This species may readily be detected from the 
two previously known by the smoothness of the 
carapace, propodi, and pleon, and more distinctly 
by the deep orbital notch on each side of the 
rostrum. 

The carapace is nearly as broad again as long, 
and produced considerably, posteriorly to the 
cardiac elevation, a feature that appears to belong 
to the female. 

The rostrum is broad, flat, and rectangular. 
The antero -lateral margins are produced so far 
anteriorly as to be nearly in a line with the 
extremity of the rostrum ; a deep notch, in which 
the eyes are situated, exists on each side of the 
rostrum. The anterior margin is slightly marked 
with distant small points ; the posterior margin 
is quite smooth and even. The dorsal surface is 
quite smooth, and pencilled in light red upon a 
yellowish ground, the red pencilling being fine 
and delicate, following the contour of the margin 
and surface of the carapace. 

The pleon is subsyminetrical and very smooth, 
and planted considerably within the posterior 
margin of the carapace. The second segment 
(first visible) has the marginal plates fused with 
the central. The sixth segment is without 
lateral plates; and the telson is situated beneath 

VOL. II. T 



274 SPECIFIC DESCKIPTION. 

and anterior to the posterior extremity of the 
sixth segment. 

The eyes are small, and placed upon peduncles, 
that gradually taper from the base to the ex- 
tremity. The first pair of antennas are short, 
and developed upon the type of those of the 
brachyura; but the first joint is reduced to a 
size that is only about twice the diameter of the 
second. The second pair of antenna are but 
little longer than the first, and are furnished 
with a broad round scale at the third joint, and 
a terminal fiagellum, that is about the length of 
the fifth joint of the peduncle. The squamiform 
appendage is circular and dishlike; the inner 
margin is straight, or somewhat excavated. 

The second pair of gnathopoda have the third 
joint much broader than the fourth (the second- 
ary appendage reaches not to the extremity of 
the third), and have the terminal joints small 
and rudimentary. The first pair of pereiopoda 
are subequal in the female, the propodos upon 
the right side being somewhat larger than on the 
left; the surface is smooth and even, and the 
dactylos is furnished with a prominent carina, 
that terminates abruptly near the basal articula- 
tion, and loses itself gradually towards the apex. 
The fifth pair of pereiopoda are completely 



PETALOCERUS BICORNIS. 275 

hid from view ; the three basal joints are short ; 
the two terminal ones subequally long, and 
furnished with a copious brush of strong cilia. 
These appendages are folded together and en- 
closed within the branchial chambers, where 
they, no doubt, fulfil the office of the flabella of 
the highest forms of Crustacea; affording an 
interesting illustration of an organ being con- 
verted, by the force of circumstances, from its 
original purpose to the fulfilment of another, for 
which it was apparently most unsuited. 

PETALOCEROS BELLIANUS (WHITE), Proc. Z. S. 1856, 
p. 134. Between tidemarks, Esquimalt Harbour. 

PETALOCERUS BICORNIS, N. S. Rostrum in duo cornua 
divisum habens. 

Carapace triangular, anteriorly produced into 
two horizontal hornlike processes, tuberculated 
with nodulated prominences all over the surface, 
but furnished with a series of large tubercles 
corresponding in a line with the external margin 
of the carapace ; the antero-lateral margin, con- 
stricted between the branchial and hepatic regions, 
furnished posteriorly to the orbit with two strong 
blunt processes, and posteriorly to the central 
constriction; armed laterally with two distinct 
narrow processes, and posteriorly with six closely- 
situated large round tubercles. 

T 2 



276 SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION. 

The pleon is nearly symmetrical, being rather 
larger on the left than the right side. Each 
segment is defined by a marginal prominence ; 
that upon the left side is continued from near 
the middle to a process that terminates in a point 
or tooth at the side ; but that on the right becomes 
confluent with a posterior ridge, and forms an 
irregular circle, the centre of which is deeply 
depressed. 

The eyes are small, of a green colour, and 
surmounted on denticulated peduncles. The 
first pair of antenna? consist of three equal- 
lengthened joints (of which the first is more 
robust), together with a short, stout, pilose 
flagellum, and a slender secondary appendage. 
The second pair of antennae have a compound 
scale, consisting of two large and two short com- 
pressed processes, and the third joint is fur- 
nished with two or three sharp strong processes. 
The first pair of pereiopoda are chelate and strong, 
echinated with blunt-pointed spines, and terminate 
in fingers that are flattened at the extremity, and 
furnished upon the outer surface with numerous 
tufts of hair, that spring from the summits of 
the numerous tubercles that are found there. 
The second, third, and fourth pairs of pereiopoda 
are more slender than the first, resemble one 



DIFFERS FROM P. BELLIANUS. 277 

another very considerably, and are furnished 
with short, sharp, and slightly-curved dactyli. 
The fifth pair of pereiopoda are rudimentary ap- 
pendages; they consist of but five joints, the last 
of which terminates in a blunt extremity, that is 
furnished with a considerable brush of hair, and 
is probably used for the purpose of cleansing the 
branchial appendages. 

The pleopoda are present in the female, with 
the exception of the first pair (which are small), 
only upon the left side of the pleon, as exempli- 
fied in our specimen. 

This species differs from White's P, bellianus 
in having a horizontal bifurcate rostrum to the 
carapace, being more distinctly tuberculated, and 
in the pereiopoda being more strongly spinated. 

This handsome species is of a yellow colour, 
picked out with purple between the tubercles. 

It was dredged in Esquimalt Harbour, in ten 
fathoms of water. 



ECHIDXOCERUS CIBARIUS (WHITE). Victoria and Esqui- 
malt Harbour. 

PORCELLANA EDWARDSII (DESAUSURE). Esquimalt 
Harbour. M. Verreaux obtained it at Magellan. 

PORCELLAXA EUPICOLA (Simi-sox). Esquimalt Harbour. 

Mr. Stimpson says that the members of this 
remarkable genus are the largest crabs known : 



278 HYPPOLYTE ESQUIMALTIANUS. 

they do not, indeed, cover so much space as do 
many of the Maiacos with their extended legs ; 
but their carapax is nearly as large and their 
weight greater than even the Macrocheira of 
Japan. Specimens have been taken the weight 
of which exceeded seven pounds; the diameter 
of the carapax is over ten inches. 

EUPAGURUS PERLATUS (EDWARDS). Esquimalt Har- 
bour. Dana records it, from Callao, Peru, and Chili. 

EUPAGURUS ARMATUS (SuMPSOir). Esquimalt Harbcur. 
CENOB1TES DIOGENES (EDWARDS). Vide vol. ii. 
CLIBANARIUS LINEATUS (DAKA). Esquimalt Harbour. 

CLIBANARIUS TURGIDUS (STIMPSON). Six fathoms water, 
in Straits of Feuca. 

CRANGON VULGARIS. Esquimalt and Victoria Harbours. 

ASTAOUS KLAMATHENSIS (SIMPSON). In all streams east 
of the Cascades. 

HYPPOLYTE ESQUIMALTIANUS, N. S. Rostrum longius 
quani carapaceni habens ; quatuor dentibus supra armatuui juxta 
basem et septem infra; quatuor posterioribus juuctim locatis: 
tertium segmentum pleonis posteriore productuni habens. 

Rostrum as long as the carapace, armed with 
four teeth at the base ; the posterior being just 
behind the orbits, and the anterior beino; near the 

' O 

centre of the rostrum ; the anterior half of the 
rostrum being straight and smooth. The inferior 
margin is excavate at the base, and furnished 
with seven small teeth ; Ihe four posterior being 
near together and posterior to the centre of the 



SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION. 279 

rostrum, the three others being further apart, 
the most anterior being subapical. 

The third segment of the pleon is dorsally pro- 
duced posteriorly to a point. The eyes are small : 
the superior antennas have the primary ramus of 
the flagellum tolerably robust, and reaching to 
about two-thirds the length of the rostrum ; the 
secondary slender, and longer than the pri- 
mary. The inferior antennas have the scale 
reaching to about three-fourths the length of the 

o 

rostrum, rounded at the apex, subapically fur- 
nished with a small tooth upon the external 
margin : the flagellum wanting. 

First pair of pereiopoda short, robust, chelate ; 
second pair long, slender, and chelate ; the pos- 
terior terminating in a robust dactylos. 

Taken in Esquimalt Harbour. 

HYPPOLYTE BREVIROSTRIS (DANA). Esquimalt 
Harbour. 

HYPPOLYTE LAYI (OWEN). Esquimalt Harbour, at 
Monterey, by Captain Beechy. 

PANDALUS DAN^E (STIMPSON). Esquimalt Harbour. 
GEBIA PUGETTENSIS (DANA). Esquimalt Harbour. 

CALLIANASSA LONGIMANA (STIMPSON). Puget's Sound 
and Straits of Feuca. 

ALLORCHESTES VERTICELLATUS (DANA). Eight 
fathoms water, in Esquimalt Harbour. 

Dana took it along the shore near Valparaiso. 



280 MGERA FUSCA. 

ALLORCHESTES BREVICORNIS (DANA). Dredged in six 
fathoms water, in Esquinialt Harbour. 

Dana records it from the Bay of Islands, New 
Zealand. 



MCERA FUSCA, N. S. Antenniarum superiorum secundum 
articulum pedunculi non longioreni quum primum haben 1 ? ; 
flagellum et pedunculum subaequalia ; gnathopoduui par secun- 
dum cum propode magno palmam edentulatum habens ; perio- 
podum posterius pares margiueni posteriorem non serratam. 

The body is long and slender; the superior 
antennas are about half the length of the animal, 
the peduncle being scarcely longer than the 
flagellum ; the secondary appendage being half 
the length of the primary, the second joint of the 
peduncle being about the same length as the first. 
Second pair of gnathopoda having the propodos 
large ; palm without teeth, and defined by a small 
pointed process ; posterior pair of pereiopoda 
having the posterior margin of the base smooth. 

In its general appearance this species bears a 
near affinity to Mcera grossimana, as well as to 
M. tenella, from the Feejee Islands ; the only 
appreciable distinctions being in the shorter 
length of the second joint of the antennas, the 
absence of teeth from the palm of the hand in the 
second pair of gnathopoda, and in the even margin 
of the last (the only remaining) pair of pereio- 



ITS AFFINITIES. 281 

poda, and perhaps also in the shortness of the 
peduncle of the ultimate pair of pleopoda. 

Only one specimen of this species is in the 
collection; and that was taken from a sponge 
dredged in about ten fathoms of water in Esqui- 
malt Harbour. It is of a brownish colour. 

AMPHITHOE PEREGKINA (DANA). Esquirnalt Harbour. 

Dana records this species as living amongst 
the roots of floating fucus, at sea, thirty miles 
south of Valparaiso. 

AMPHITHOE ORIENTALES (DANA). Egquimalt Harbour. 

It is also recorded by Dana from Tongatabu, 
in the Pacific, along shores of coral in shallow 
water. 

AMPHITHOE FILICOPtNIS (DANA). Esquimalt Harbour. 

It differs in no essential character from the 
specimen to which Dana has given the specific 
name, and which he obtained at Rio Janeiro. 

IDOTEA WOSSENESSKII (BKANDT). Esquimalt Harbour. 

Dana records it from San Francisco; it has 
also been taken at Atcha and Sitka Sounds by 
Wossenesskii, and at Puget's Sound by Dr. 
Suckly. 



282 JCERA WAKISHIANA. 

IDOTEA MEDIA. Esquimalt Harbour. 
IDOTEA STRICTA (DANA). Esquimalt Harbour. 

JCERA WAKISHIANA, N. S. Posteriorem marginein pleonis 
liabens bis excavatum cuspide intermedia supra cuspidatos mar- 
gines non producta ; antennae inferiores non possunt extendere 
supra quintum segnientuni ; pereionis posteriora pleopoda non 
longiora quain posteriori niargo latus est. 

Anterior margin of the cephalon nearly straight ; 
pereion having the sides subparallel, the greatest 
width being at the sixth segment ; pleon having 
a double excavation on the posterior margin, the 
central point not extending beyond the extremity 
of the sides. Superior antennas reaching to the 
extremity of the fourth segment of the inferior ; 
inferior antennae nearly two-thirds of the length 
of the animal. Posterior pair of pleopoda as long 
as the posterior margin of the pleon, terminating 
in two styliform rami, each of which is tipped 
with a few short hairs. 

This species was taken from a sponge dredged 
in about eight fathoms of water in Esquimalt 
Harbour. 

The specific name is derived from the circum- 
stance of the animal having been found on the 
territory of the tribe of Wakish Indians. 

TANAIS LORICATUS, N. S. Exemplum imperfectum ; inferi- 
ores antennas semi-breviores quam superiores liabens ; guathopo- 
dum primi paris propoda ovata dactylo breve et tumido; pereio- 
podum primis tribus articulis brevibus et latis suiit, loricis ad 
pereionem adhereutibus. 



TANAIS LOKICATUS. 283 

The only specimen in the collection is imper- 
fect. The first segment of the pereioii appears 
to be imperfectly fused with the cephalon; in- 
ferior antennaB scarcely half the length of the 
superior. First pair of gnathopoda having the 
propodos ovate ; dactylos short and tumid, shorter 
and less pointed than the digital process of the 
propodos. Pereiopoda having the first three 
joints short and broad, being affixed to the side 
of the pereion like plates of mail (hence the spe- 
cific name) ; they terminate in short pointed 
dactyli, and have the propodi armed with two 
lateral rows of strong black pointed teeth. 

This species was taken from the hollow of a 
sponge dredged in Esquimalt Harbour, at the 
depth of about ten fathoms. 

IONE CORXUTUS, N. S. Mas: pleonem terminatum rotimde. 

The male differs from the description of the 
European species, chiefly in having the caudal 
extremity terminating obtusely, and in having 
shorter antennae. 

Foem., subequilateralis, lateralia cornua cephalonis habens recur- 
vata, pleopoda longa et arborea. 

The female has the antero-lateral hornlike pro- 
cess of the cephalon curved posteriorly. The 
pereion is not quite equilaterally developed. The 



284 IONE COENUTUS. 

coxae of the four anterior pairs of the pereiopoda 
are round, and all attached to the antero-lateral 
margin of the segments of the pereion. The 
coxaa of the three posterior are the larger, and 
produced posteriorly to a point. The pleopoda 
are long, and fringed with arborescent branchiae. 

This is the only species known, besides that 
taken by Colonel Montagu on the southern coast 
of England. 

Length, male, ^ ; female, of an inch. 

Taken attached to the branchia of Callianassa 
longimana. 

My mission in North-western America is ended. 
The Hudson's Bay Company's steamer ' Labou- 
chere ' takes us to San Francisco, where we spend 
a very pleasant week, and I meet with many old 
friends, whom I had encountered mule-hunting. 
The mail-steamer takes us to Panama, where we 
have to remain a short time, to await the arrival 
of the English steamer at Colon. Panama has 
been so often described, and is so frequently 
visited nowadays, that any description of mine 
would be a repetition of what others have 
better said. 

I will content myself by saying we reached 
home safely and in admirable health. If I have 



HOME AGAIN. 285 

been successful enough to combine instruction 
with amusement, and when the reader puts down 
the 'Naturalist in North-western America,' after 
going through its pages, he can say he knows 
more of that country's Natural History than he 
did before, I shall have accomplished all my 
most sanguine anticipations. 



APPENDIX. 



289 



APPENDIX. 



A List of Mammals, Birds, Insects, Reptiles, Fishes, 
Shells, Annelides, and Diatomacece, collected by 
myself in British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 
with notes on their habits. 

New species, together with those possessing any novel 
interest, are described in Vol. I. or II. 

HERE I think is the proper place to acknowledge the 
obligations conferred on me by the following gentle- 
men, without whose valuable aid I could not have 
determined and described the new species obtained : 

To Dr. E. Gfray, first, for immense assistance con- 
ferred in his public capacity, and great kindness shown 
me in his private one. 

To Mr. Greorge Gray (British Museum), for valuable 
help in making out the birds. 

To Dr. Baird (British Museum), for description of 
the new species of shells and annelides, and other valu- 
able help as regards the molluscous groups. 

To Mr. Smith (British Museum), for great assistance 
in determining, naming, and arranging the insects; 

VOL. II. U 



290 



APPENDIX. 



and to Mr. Walker, for naming and describing the 
Coleoptera. 

To Dr. A. Grunther (British Museum), for descriptions 

and much valuable aid in making out the Salmonidse 
and other fishes collected. 

To Professor Bowerbank, F. K. S., for very great 
kindness in determining and describing two sponges 
new to science. 

To Spence Bates, Esq., for descriptions of the new 
Crustaceans. 

To Mr. E. W. Smith and Mr. Whymper I am in- 
debted for the able illustrations in Vols. I. and IT. 



List of Mammals. 



INSECTITOHA. 
Sorex Trowbridgii. (Baird.) 

- Suckleyi. (Baird.) 

- vagrans. (Cooper.) 
Urotrichus Gibsii. (Baird.) 
Scalops Townsendii. (Bach.) 

FELID.E. 

Felis concolor. (Linn.) 
Lynx canadensis. (Kaf.) 

CANIDJE. 

Canis occidentalis. 

- Grisco albus. (Eichd.) 

- rufus. (Richd.) 

- llatrans. 

familiaris. 

Vulpes maerourus. (Baird.) 

discussatus. 

argcntatus. 

MABTIN.ZE. 

Mustcla Pennantii. (Erxl.) 

- americana. (Turton.) 



Putorius noveboracensis. (De Kay. ) 

longicauda. (Bonapt.) 

Vison. (Ard. & Bach.) 
Gulo luscus. (Ard. & Bach.) 



Lutra californica. (Gray.) 
Enhydra marina. (Licht.) 



Mephitis occidentalis. (Baird.) 

- bicolor. (Gray.) 
Taxidea americaua. (Baird.) 



Procyon lotor. (Storr.) 
Ursus horribilis. (Ord.) 
- cinnamomeus. (Ord.) 

americanus. (Ord.) 

EODENTIA. 
Sciurus Hudsonius. (Pallas.) 

fossor. (Peake.) 

Douglass! i. (Bach.) 



APPENDIX. 



291 



Sciurus Kicharclsonii. (Bach.) 
Pteromys Oregonensis. (Bach.) 

alpinus. (Richd.) 
Spermophilus Townsendii. (Bach.) 

- Douglassii. (Eichd.) 

Richardson!!. (Sabine.) 

Parryii. (Eichd.) 

lateralis. (Tay.) 
Tamias quadrivittatus. (Say.) 

Townsendii. (Bach.) 
Arctomys pruinosus. (Gmelin.) 

monax. (Linn.) 

Okanaganus. (King.) 

CASTOEIN^:. 

Aplodontia leporina. (Eichd.) 
Castor canadensis. (Kulil.) 

GEOMTINJE. 

Thomomys Douglassii. (Eichd.) 

Umbrinus. 

SACCOMYINjK 

Perognathus monticola. (Baird.) 

DIPODIN.E. 
Jaculus Hudsonius. 

MUEINJE. 

Mus rattus. (Linn.) 
Hesperomys austerus. (Baird.) 



Hesperomys leucopus. (Leconte.) 

Boylii. (Baird.) 
Neotoma cinerea. (Ord.) 
Arvicola Oregoni. (Bach.) 

FIBEE. 

Fiber Zibethicus. (Cuvier.) 

- Osoyoosensis. (Lord: sp. nov.) 

HYSTEEICIDjE. 

Erpthizon epixanthus. (Brandt.) 

LEPOBID.ZE. 
Lepus californicus. (Gray.) 

campestris. (Bach.) 

- artimesia. (Bach.) 
Lagomys princeps. (Richd.) 

minimus. (Lord : sp. nov.) 

CEBVIN^E. 

Alee americanus. (Jard.) 
Eangifer caribou. (And. & Bach.) 
Cerrus canadensis. (Erxl.) 

virginianus. (Bodd.) 

leucurus. (Doug.) 

columbianus. (Richd.) 

macrotis. (Say.) 

CAVI CORNICE. 

Antilocapra americana. (Ord.) 
Aplocerus montanus. (Ord.) 
montana. (Cuvier.) 



List of the Birds, with notes of habitat and periods 
of arrival and departure. 



Raptores. 



Cathatis aura 

californiauus . 



Vancouver Island, and throughout 

British Columbia. 
Mouth of Fraser River. Seldom 

visits the interior. 



U 2 



292 



APPENDIX. 



Falco nigriceps 

columbaris 

sparverus 
Astur atricapillus 



Accipiter mexicanus 

Cooperii . 

fuscus 



Buteo montanus . 

Archibuteo lagopus 
ferruginous 
Circus hudsonius . 

Haliectus leucocephalus 
Pandion Carolinensis . 
Bubo virginianus 
Scops asio . 
Otus "Wilsonianus 

Brachyotus Cassinii 
Syrnium cineruin 
Nyctale acadica . 
Surnia uhila 
G-laucidium gnoma 



Nyctea nivea 

P 
Athene cunicularia 



Sumass Prairie. 

Vancouver Island, and throughout 
British Columbia. Migratory. 

Common in British Columbia. Win- 
ters on Vancouver Island. 

Lake Osoyoos, Shemeelkameen 
Eiver. Arrives in May ; leaves 
in October. 

Both common east of the Cascades. 
Only summer visitors. 

More common on Vancouver Island 
than either east or west of the 
Cascades. 

An abundant species. Seen con- 
stantly east of the Cascades. 

Sumass and Osoyoos Lakes. 

Seen only at Sumass. 

Abundant. Arrives in May and 
June. 

Throughout British Columbia and 
Vancouver Island. Winters. 

Seen near all lakes and rivers. 
Winters at the island. 

Abundant east and west of the 
Cascades. 

Bather a rare species. Winters 
east of the Cascades. 

Common throughout British Co- 
lumbia. 

Sumass and Chelukweynk prairies. 

A rare species ; shot at Sumass only. 

Obtained only east of the Cascades. 

Hock Creek, Lake Osoyoos. 

A rare and beautiful little species, 
but seldom seen. Migratory ; 
arriving at Vancouver Island in 
May. 

Not unfrequently seen near the 
entrance to the Fraser Eiver. 

Seen only east of the Cascades. 



APPENDIX. 293 



Picidce. 

Picus Harrisii .... Vancouver Island, Sumass, Osoyoos. 

Arrives in May. Winters at Van- 
couver Island. 

- Gairdneri .... Much as preceding. 

albolarratus .... A rare and beautiful species. Ob- 

tained only east of the Cascades. 
Picoides arcticus .... Obtained only east of the Cascades. 

- hirsutus ..... East and west of the Cascades. 
Hylatomus pileatus . . . Common east and west of the Cas- 
cades. 

Melanerpes torquatus . . . Shot only in the open timbered 

lands, in British Columbia, east 
of the Cascades. 

Colaptis mexicanus . . . The most abundant of the summer 

visitors to Vancouver Island and 
British Columbia. 

., Vancouver Island. Sumass, Osoyoos, 

Sphyrapicus varms . . . ,, , , , . 1, 

I valley of the Columbia. Both 

ruber [ 

) species. 

Colaptes auratus . . ) , 

I Seen only at Sumass. 
(var.) hybridus . . . J 

Trochilidce. 

Trochilus Alexandri . . . Obtained only in the valley of the 

Columbia. 
Stellata Calliope .... Syniakwateen,and summit of Eocky 

Mountains, 7,000 feet altitude. 
Selasphorus rufus . . . Common on Vancouver Island and 

throughout British Columbia. 

Cypsilidce. 

Nophocaetes niger . . . Sumass and Fort Colville. 
Chaetura Vauxii .... Sumass only. 

Caprimulgidce. 

Chordeiles popetue . . . Vancouver Island and throughout 

British Columbia. 



294 APPENDIX. 

Alcedinidce. 

Ceryle Alcyon .... Very abundant, 

Tyrannince. 

Tyrannus carolinensis . . . Vancouver Island and throughout 

British Columbia. Arrives in 
May ; leaves in October. 

verticals .... As preceding. 



Sayornis Say us . 
Centopus borealis 



Empidonax pusillus 



All these Flycatchers are found in 
British Columbia, and some of 



Eichardsonii .... them also visit Vancouver Island: 



arriving in May, and leaving in 



acaclicus . September and October. 

flaviventris 



Turdidce. 



Turdus migratorius 



naevius 



- The three species are plentifully 
distributed, reaching Vancouver 
Island in May, a little later in 
British Columbia. Leave in 

Pallasii . October. A few only winter on 

the island. 

Sialia mexicana .... Common on Vancouver Island and 

throughout British Columbia. 

arctica Seen only east of the Cascades ; 

arriving in May ; flocking after 
nesting ; leaving in October. 

Regulus satrapa .... Very plentiful on Vancouver Island 

and in British Columbia. 

calendula .... Seen only east of the Cascades. 
Hydrobata mexicana . . . Very common on all rivers. 

Sylvicolidce. 

Anthiis ludovicianus . . . Common on grassy prairies. Shot 

it only east of the Cascades, on 
the Spokan and Grand Prairies. 



APPENDIX. 295 

Geothlypis trichas . . . Vancouver Island and British Co- 
lumbia. 

Macgillivrayi .... Vancouver Island and British Co- 
lumbia. May and October, ar- 
rives and departs. 

Helminthophaga celata . . Syniakwateen. 

Dendroica Townsendii . 



nigrescens 
coronata 
Audubonii 
sestiva 



These "Warblers have much the same 
range in Vancouver Island and 
British Columbia, arriving in 
May and leaving in October, 
maculosa 

Myodioctes pusillus . . . Much the same as the Warblers. 
Setophaga ruticilla . . . Syniakwateen only. 
Pyranga ludoviciana . . . Generally distributed, and migra- 
tory. 



Hirundinidce. 



Cotyle riparia 

serripennis 
Hirundo horreorum 

thallassina 

bicolor . 

lunifrons 



Much more plentiful east than west 
of the Cascades. Arrive in May, 
and leave in September. 



Bombycillidce. 

Ampelis garrulus . . . Shot only east of the Cascades. 

cedrorum .... Common on Vancouver Island, and 

along the Fraser and Columbia 
rivers. 

Myadestis Townsendii . . . Very rare. Shot them once only in 

the Columbia valley. 

Laniidce. 

Collyrio borealis .... Tolerably abundant. 

Vireo olivaceus .... Syniakwateen. 

gilvus Syniakwateen. 

solitarius .... Sumass, Vancouver Island, Syniak- 

wateen. All migratory. 



296 



APPENDIX. 



Salpinctes obsoletus 
Thriothorus Bewickii 
Cistotherus palustris 

Troglodites Parkmani 
hyemalis 



Certhia americana 



Sitta aculeata 

canadensis 

pygmea . 



Parus occidentalis 

montanus 

rufescens 
Psaltiparus minimus 



Eremophila cornuta 



Liotrichidce. 



Vancouver Island and Sumass. Both 
migratory. 

All plentifully scattered about the 
open timber, and round the edges 
of prairies. Only summer visitors. 



Certhiadce. 



The only species found, and not by 
any means plentiful. 



Sittince. 



Much the same distribution, the 
two latter species being more 
abundant east of the Cascades. 



Paridce. 



All four species abundant every- 
where. 



Alaudidce. 



Sumass, Osoyoos, Vancouver Island, 
and Grand Prairie. 



Fringillidce. 



Hesperiphona vespertina 
Pinicola canadensis 

Carpodacus californicus 

Cassinii . 
Chysometris tristis 

pinus . 

Curvirostra americana . 
Aegiothus linaria 



Syniakwateen, valley of the Co- 
lumbia. Never saw them west of 
the Cascades. 

These are all abundant summer 
residents, on both slopes of the 
Cascades. 



APPENDIX. 



297 



Leucosticte tephrocotis 



Plectrophanes nivalis 
Passerculus savanna 

sandwichensis 
Chondestes grammaca 
Zonotrichia Gambellii 

coronata 

albicollis 
Junco oregonus 



Spizella monticola 

socialis . 

Brewerii 
Melospiza rufina . 

Lincolnii 
Passerella Townsendii 
Cyonospiza amcena 



Summits of the Cascades and Rocky 
Mountains. Very rare. Breeds 
at an altitude of 7,000 feet above 
the sea level. 

Sumass, Fort Colville. 

Common about the prairies and 
open timbered lands. Arrive in 
May, leave in September. 

The most abundant small bird in 
British Columbia. Arrives early 
in May, and leaves in October. 



Regular summer visitors. 



Icteridce. 



Agelaius phoeniceus 
Molothrus pecoris 
Sturnella neglecta 
Icterus Bullockii 
Scolecophagus cyanocephalus 



Abundant in some localities only 
during the nocking, after nesting. 



Corvidce. 



Cervus americana 
carnivorus 

- caurinus 

Picicorvus columbianus 
Pica hudsonica 
Cyanura Stelleri . 
Perisoreus canadensis . 



For description of habits, see chap- 
ter on Crows, Vol. II. 



298 



APPENDIX. 



Ectopistes migratoria , 
Columba fasciata . 
Zenaidura carolinensis 



ColumJbidcB. 



Never seen in large flocks. Arrive 
in May, and leave in October. 



Tetraonidce. 



Tetrao obscurus . 
Franklinii 
Centrocercus urophasianus 
Pediocaetes phasianellus 
Bonasa Sabiuii 
Lagopus rupestris 



Vide chapter on Game Birds, Vol. II. 



Grus canadensis . 



GruidcK. 



Very common east and "west of the 
Cascades. 



Ardea herodius 
Botaurus lentiginosus . 



Ardeidce. 



Sumass prairies, Vancouver Island, 
and streams east of the Cascades, 
Osoyoos Lakes. 



Aegialitis vociferus 
Squaturola helvetica 
Aphriza virgata . 



Charadridce. 



Common throughout British Co- 
lumbia. 

Not at all plentiful. Seen usually 
on the mud flats at low tide. 

Rare. Frequents rocks along the 
sea-coast. Shot it at Nainimo 
and Fort Kupert. 



Haematopodidce. 



Hsematopus palliatus . 
Strepsilas melanocephalus 



Common on the rocks in Esquimalt 
Harbour. 



APPENDIX. 



299 



Phalaropus hyperboreus 



Gallinago "Wilsonii 



Phalaropodidce. 

In most streams east of the Cas- 
cades. I also shot it in Esqui- 
malt Harbour. 

Scolopacidce. 

Not very plentiful. Langley, Su- 
mass, Osoyoos. 



Macrorhamphus scolopaceus 
Tringa subarquata 

alpina . 

maculata 

Bonapartii 

Wilsonii 
Ereunetes petrificatus . 
Tringoides macularia . 
Gambetta flavipes 
Heteroscelus brevipes . 
Numineus longirostris . 
Arctiturus Bartramius . 
Tringites rufescens 
Limosa fedoa 

Fulica americana 



Cygnus americanus 
buccinator 



Anser hyperboreus 

Gambellii 
Bernicla canadensis 

Hutchinsii 



Anas boschas 
Defila acuta 
Nettion carolinensis 
Querquedula discors 



Most of these breed in British 
Columbia, arriving in May and 
leaving in October. 



Arrive and breed as the above. 

Vide Vol. II. 

All three breed at the Osoyoos 
Lakes. 



Cygnince. 



Common throughout British Co- 
lumbia. 



Anserince. 



Vide Vol. II. 



Anatince. 



Common both on the coast and on 
lakes and rivers inland. 



300 



APPENDIX. 



Querquedula cyanoptera 
Spatula clypeata . 
Aix sponsa . 
Chaulelasmus streperus 
Mareca americana 
Fulix marila 

affinis 

collaris . 
Athya americana 

Tallisneria 
Bticephala americana . 

islandica 
- albeola . 

Histrionicus torquatus 
Harelda glacialis . 
Melanetta velvetina 
Pelionetta perspicillata 
Oidemia americana 
Erismatura rubida 
Mergus serrator . 
Lophodytes cucullatus . 

Diomedia brachyura 

fuliginosa 



" Eegiilar visitors. 



Diomedeince. 



Common in Puget's Sound, and in 
the Gulf of Georgia. 



Larus glaucescens 

argentatus 

occidentals . 

californicus 

delawarensis . 

Suckleyi 
Blasipus Heermanni 
Chroicocephalus Philadelphia 
Kissa septentrionalis . 



Laridce. 



All found along the coast, and in 
the Gulf of Georgia. 



Pellicanus erythrorhyncus 
fuscus 



Pellicanidce. 

Kather rare. Found in Puget's 
Sound; and the former at their 
breeding grounds at the Klamath 
Lakes. 



APPENDIX. 



301 



Phalacrocoracidce. 



Graculus cilophus 

riolaceus 
Colymbus septentrionalis 

torquatus 



Podiceps cornutus 
- cristatus 

griseigena 

occidentalis 
Podilymbus podiceps 



Mormon cirrhata . 
Cerorhina monocerata 
Uria columba 



All abundant about Fort Rupert. 



Podicipince. 



Common in all inland lakes and 
streams. 



Alcidce. 



Found in the Gulf of Georgia. 
Breed on the islands. 



REPTILES. 
ORDER I. CHELONIA TURTLES. 

ACTINEMYS MARMORATA. (AgaSS.) 

The Western Pond Turtle. 

I obtained these turtles at Walla-walla in the month 
of June. They had left the streams, and were wandering 
about in the grass to deposit their eggs. Apart from 
the egg season, it is a most difficult matter to catch 
them. I have seen them in nearly every lake and pool 
east and west of the Cascades, They are also common 
on Vancouver Island.* 

* Vide Vol. I. 



302 APPENDIX. 



ORDER II. SAUKIA THE LIZARDS. 

ELGARIA PRINCIPIS. (Baird and Grirard.) 
Spotted Elgaria. 

I obtained specimens of this lizard at Walla-walla 
and on the banks of the Chelukweyuk river. I found 
it in both cases under stones, in turning them over to 
hunt for beetles. Dr. Suckley records it as being found 
west of the Cascade range, but I never met with it ; I 
should not say that it was by any means an abundant 
species. 

PHRYNOSOMA CORNUTUM. (Gray.) 

This species is much larger than Tapaya Douglassii, 
and has a much more extensive geographic range. The 
specimens I brought home were obtained on the open 
sandy plains laying north of the Klamath lakes these 
plains appear to be its limit north, beyond this Tapaya 
Douglassii replaces it and also on the sunny hill sides 
at Colville. Whether it is to be found along the coast 
range, or west of the Cascade mountains, I am not sure ; 
at any rate I never saw it there. Its colour very nearly 
approximates the basaltic piles, in the cracks of which 
it lives. 

TAPAYA DOUGLASSII. (Grirard.) 
The Oregon Horned Toad. 

I never saw this singular looking lizard on the west 
slope of the Cascades, but they abound on the sand 



APPENDIX. 303 

plains on each side of the Columbia river ; * I also saw 
them on the Tobacco plains, between the Kootanie 
river and the Gralton mountains, and in the Flathead 
valley, which is about 4,199 feet above the sea level. 
They live on the dry sandy plains, and run so much 
like a mouse that I have often been deceived, and 
taken them for small mammals. They live in holes 
generally at the roots of a wild sage (the Artemesia) 
bush, and are perfectly harmless, although their looks 
sadly belie them. I have frequently taken them in 
my hand, and they neither bite or attempt to use 
their spines for defensive purposes. I obtained another 
species, much larger than this, on the sand plains near 
the Klamath Lakes, that does not appear to range as 
far north as this smaller species. Vide P. cornutum. 

OPHIDIA THE SERPENTS. 

CKOTALUS LUCIFER. (Baird and Girard.) 
The Western Rattlesnake. 

The Eattlesnake, I believe I may safely say, is never 
found west of the Cascade range, neither is it in any 
great abundance north of the Columbia river ; but at 
the Dalles, the Snake, Pelouse, and Spokan rivers, 
indeed I may say at every station along the entire Bndy. 
Line, and high up on the slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains its name is legion. I have often, when 
climbing a sunny hill-side, seen a rattlesnake coiled 
up on nearly every ledge and flat-lying stone. Speci- 
mens obtained at different localities vary very much 
in colour, both in the ground colour and mark- 

* Vide Vol. II. 



304 APPENDIX. 

ings; and I am inclined to think the marking and 
general hue of the snake depends in a great degree 
on the nature of the rocks, or colour of the ground 
whereon it lives. 

I never once saw the rattlesnake attempt to spring 
at or attack either man, dog, or horse. I have again 
and again teased a large rattlesnake with a twig, but 
never succeeded in provoking to attack me. Very 
sluggish in all its movements, and remarkably fond of 
creeping in the dust. 

The Indian women use the rattle of the snake, both 
on the east and west side of the Eocky Mountains, 
either to produce abortion, or, as ergot of rye (Secede 
cornutum), is used by physicians to produce uterine 
contraction. The rattle has evidently some specific 
effect on the uterine tissues. I do not think there is 
more than one species west of the Eocky Mountains. 

BASCANION VETUSTUS. (Baird and GKrard.) 

The Green Racer. 

This snake I obtained at Sumass and Chelukweyuk 
prairies, and along the Bndy. Line east of the Cascades. 
Its favourite haunt appears to be in the thin brush 
skirting the edges of open prairie land, and the princi- 
pal part of its time in the summer appears to be passed 
in the bushes, up the stems of which it climbs with 
great ease and celerity ; when there, it lazily basks away 
its time coiled round a branch. I suspect tree frogs 
arid insect larvas constitute its usual food.* 

* Vide Vol. I. 



APPENDIX. 305 

WENONA PLUMBEA. (Baird and Girard.) 
The Wood Snake. 

Not at all uncommon on the Sumass and Cheluk- 
weyuk prairies; frequents dark shady spots, or long- 
grass round the edges of pools. I never met with any 
east of the Cascades. 

WENONA ISABELLA. (Baird and Girard.) 

Much the same in habits and distribution as the 
above ; common in the woods along the bank of the 
Chelukweyuk river. Both these snakes are also found 
on Vancouver Island. 

BATRACHIA. 

ANOUEA (TAILLESS BATEACHIANS). 
BUFO BOREAS. (Baird and Girard.) 

This toad is common east and west of the Cascades, 
on the Sumass and Chelukweyuk prairies, in the valley 
of the Columbia, and on the Spokan prairies ; fond of 
lurking in damp, dark underbrush and long grass found 
also on Vancouver Island. 

BUFO COLUMBIENSIS. 

The Columbian Toad. 

Very common along the banks of the Columbia, and 
extending up the western slopes of the Eocky Moun- 
tains ; fond of damp shady situations, especially the 
wooded edges of pools and lakes ; in the summer time 
it frequently goes into the water. 

VOL. II. X 



306 APPENDIX. 

There are two or three specimens of snakes I brought 
home not yet made out, which will perhaps be found to 
be new species. 

EUTAINIA PICKERINGII. (Baird and Girard.) 
Pickering's Garter Snake. 

This snake I found on the Sumass and Chelukweyuk 
prairies, as well as along the entire course of the Bndy. 
Line to the Eocky Mountains. I also saw it in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon. 

They come out of their winter sleeping places in 
May, and then lay about the edges of the brush, lazily 
sunning themselves. About a month later coupling 
time arrives, when they get near the water, and are 
usually seen in small groups. In the hot summer 
weather they spend nearly the whole of their time in 
the water. They are quite harmless, and feed princi- 
pally on small Batrachians and insects. 

EUTAINIA LEPTOCEPHALA. (Baird and Girard.) 

The Small-headed Striped Snake. 
The same remarks apply to this as E. Pickeringii. 

EUTAINIA VAGRANS. (Baird and Girard.) 
The Large-headed Striped Snake. 

The same range and habits as the two preceding 
species. 

EUTAINIA CONCINNA. 

The One-striped Garter Snake. 

Not so common on the west of the Cascades as the 
preceding species of Garter snakes, but I saw it at 



APPENDIX. 307 

Sumass, and on the trail that crosses the Cascade range 
from Fort Hope to Colville. 

All the Grarter snakes found along the course of Bndy. 
Line are very similar to each other, not only in habit 
but in the distribution of the markings ; all are harm- 
less, and may be handled with impunity. 

PETUOPHIS WILKESII. (Baird and Gfirard.) 
Oregon Bull Snake. 

This snake attains a much larger size than any other 
species in this district; I have frequently seen them 
three or four feet long. The snake is common on 
both sides of the Cascades ; in the spring it keeps on 
the grassy prairie land, but in the hot weather retires 
to the shores of lakes and ponds, or the margins of 
streams, and spends much of its time in the water. 
Although quite harmless, it assumes a most menacing 
attitude when suddenly surprised on the open plain, 
curling itself up into a spiral, and hissing furiously. 
I obtained one very large specimen near Colville, 
another at Sumass, and a third near the foot of the 
Gralton Mountains. I never saw it on Vancouver Island, 
although I think it is very likely that it lives there in 
the open valley land. 

I obtained another species of Petuophis, but it has 
not yet been determined or named. 

ELGARIA GRANDIS. (Baird and Girard.) 
Banded Elgaria. 

I obtained this beautiful lizard at the Blacksmith's 
Camp, on the Chelukweyuk river; I also saw it at 

X 2 



308 APPENDIX. 

Walla-walla on the banks of the Columbia. The hot 
sandy plains about Walla-walla seem to be a favourite 
haunt for several species of lizards. The wild sage grows 
about in tufts or patches, and under the roots live the 
lizards: the sand is covered with their tracks; they are so 
sharp and active that it is very difficult to catch them. 

SCELOPOEUS OCCIDENTALS. 

Western Fence Lizard. 

This lizard is very common on the sand plains along 
the banks of the Columbia river. I also obtained it at 
Colville (altitude above sea level 1,268 feet). I never 
saw it west of the Cascades, although Dr. Suckley 
mentions it as being found at Steilacum. Its habit is 
to frequent dead timber and to hide under stones and 
fallen logs ; it often climbs into the pine trees, and all 
its motions are very agile and graceful. 

SCELOPORUS GRACIOSUS. (Baird and Grirard.) 
Slender Fence Lizard. 

This lizard is very common on the large masses of 
basaltic rocks * that start up like ogres' castles on the 
sand plains between Walla-walla and Colville. I saw 
a great many of them at the Snake river ferry, on the 
rocks about the Pelouse river. 

UBADELA (TAILED BATEACHIANS). 

TARICHA TOROSA. (Gray. Cat. Brit. Mus. 1 1-1656, p. 25.) 

The Warty Salamander. 

A widely-distributed species found east and west of 
the Cascades, and on the western slope of the Rocky 

* Vide Vol. II. 



APPENDIX. 



309 



Mountains; its haunts are in dark damp situations, 
where it remains for hours on a log or a stone perfectly 
still; when in motion its mode of progression is slow 
and lazy. I believe it passes the winter buried deeply 
in the sand or in damp earth banks. I saw a salamander 
that I imagine was this species (but did not obtain it) 
on Ptarmigan hill* near some running water ; this was 
late in the year (October), and 7,000 feet above the sea 
level. I also obtained specimens at Sumass and Colville. 

LIST OF COLEOPTEEA. 

The new species are distinguished by an *. 

GEODEPHAGA. (Mac Leay.) Amara. (Bon.) 

*extensa. (Walk.) 
communis. 



Cicindela. (Linn.) 
vulgaris. 

CAKABID.K. 

Elaphrus. (Fabr.) 

intermedius. (Kirby.) 
Calosoma. (Weber.) 

*irregulare. (Walk.) 
Callisthenes. 

*pirneloides. (Walk.) 
Carabus. (Auct.) 

*bicolor. (Walk.) 
Cychrus. (Fabr.) 

angusticollis. (Eschs.) 
tuberculatus. (Harris.) 
Chl&nius. (Bon.) 

sericeus. (Dej.) 
Agonum. (Bon.) 
seminitidum. 
Ptcrostichus. (Auct.) 
*calligatus. (Walk.) 
validus. (Lee.) 
similis. (Kirby.) 



HARPAUDJE. 



Anisodactylus. (Dej.) 

calif ornicus. 
Harpalus. (Latr.) 
*defixus. (Walk.) 



BEMBIDIID2E. 



Bembidium. (Latr.) 
*sequalis. (Walk.) 

HYDRADEPHAGA. (Mac Leay.) 
Dytiscus. (Linn.) 

Ooligbukii. (Kirby.) 
Acilius. (Leach.) 

semisulcatus. (Aube.) 
Hydaticus. (Leach.) 

zonatus. (Koppe.) 
Tropisternus. (Sol.) 

*binotatus. (Walk.) 
Laccophilus. (Leach.) 

maculosus. (Linn.) 

* Vide Vol. I. 



310 



APPENDIX. 



BRACHELYTRA. 

A1EOCHA.RID.ZE. 

Atemeles. (Dill.) 
*reflexa. (Walk.) 

STAPHY1IMDJE. 

CreophUus. (Kirby.) 
villosus. 

MECROPHAGA. 



Mecrophorus. 

Melsheimeri. (Kirby.) 
*conversator. (Walk.) 

HISTEEID.3E. 

Saprinus. (Erich.) 

*consimilis. (Walk.) 
*fimbriatus. 
Trogosita. (Oliv.) 

maiiritanica. (Linn.) 
virescens. (Fabr.) 

DERMESTID-E. 

Dermestes, (Linn.) 

lardarius. (Linn.) 

CUCUJIDJE. 
Cucujus. 

puniceus. (Mann.) 

HYDBOPHELID.ZE. 

Hydrous. (Leach.) 

triangularis. (Say.) 
Philhydnts. (Sol.) 
*liyidus. (Walk.) 

LAlVtELLICORNES. 

CETONIID^E. 

Cremastochilus. 

*armatus. (Walk.) 

EUTELIDJE. 

Anomda. (Koppe.) 

*contermina. (Walk.) 



Ancylonica. 

*nigropicea. (Walk.) 
*consequens. (Walk.) 
*uninotata. (Walk.) 

MELOLONTHID.2E. 

Ehizotrogus. 

*collocatus. (Walk.) 
Serica. (Mac Leay.) 

*crassata. (Walk.) 
Mclolontha. 

decernlineata. (Say.) 



Coprobius. (Latr.) 
simplex. (Lee.) 

EUPLUETJS. 
subterraneus. 

BUPBESTID.E. 

Dircea. 

tuberculata. (Harris.) 
CJialeophora. (Sol.) 

angiilicollis. (Lee.) 
Ancylocheira. (Eschs.) 

rusticorum. (Kirby.) 

aurulentum. 
*ornata. (Walk.) 
Trachyptcris. 

prasina. (Lee.) 

decolorata. (Lass. & Gar.) 

ELATERIDJE. 

Alaus. 

luscus. (Fabr.) 
Adelocera. 

*vetusta. (Walk.) 
Athoits. (Eschs.) 

*vittatus. (Walk.) 
Selatosomus. 

*semimetallicus. (Walk.) 

Limonius. (Eschs.) 
*consimilis. (Walk.) 



APPENDIX. 



311 



CLEKID.E. 

Clerus. 

sobrius. (Walk.) 

nubilus. (Khig.) 
Corynetes. (Herbst.) 

violaceus. (Fabr.) 

HETEEOMEEA. 

BLAPTID^E. 

Elcodes. (Eschs.) 

*convexicollis. (Walk.) 
*conjuncta. (Walk.) 
*latiuscula. (Walk.) 
*subtuberculata. (Walk.) 

caudata. (Sol.) 
*binotata. (Walk.) 

CONIOTID^). 

Coniontis ovalis. (Eschs.) 

CCELOMETOPID.&. 

C&locnemis. 

californica? (Mann.) 
dentipes. (Esch.) 

TENEBRIONID.E:. 

Iphthinus. 

*servilis. (Walk.) 
*servator. (Walk.) 
*subligatus. (Walk.) 

MELOIDJE. 

Lytta. 

*immerita. (Walk.) 
vesicatoria. (Linn.) 
Nemognatha. 

*bicolor. (Walk.) 

HELOPID^. 

Hdops. 

*inclusus. (Walk.) 
Eusattus. (Lecont.) 
muricatus. (Lee.) 



EHYNCHOPHOEA. 



Ehynchites. (Herbst.) 
*congrua. (Walk.) 

LONGICOENES. 

PRIONID.S:. 
Prionus. (Geoff.) 

pocularis. (Dahl.) 
Macrotoma. 

spiculigera. (WHte.) 
Spondylus. 

apiformis. 

CEEAMBTCID^:. 

Clytus. (Fabr.) 
Sayi. (Lory.) 
Erioccphalus. 

productus. (Lee.) 

LAMIAD^E. 

Monohammus. 

clamator. (Lee.) 
resiitor. (Kirby.) 
Eutrypanus. 

*princeps. (Walk.) 

LEPTTJEIDJE. 

Trypoccrus. 

*cervinus. (Walk.) 
Leptura. 

annulata. (Lory.) 
chrysocoma. (Kirby.) 
Toxotus. 

*perductor. (Walk.) 
Pachyta. 
litura. 

sexmacnlata. 
Graptodera. 

plicapennis. 
^ryptocephalus. 

*bisignatus. (Walk.) 
hclymorpha. 
Argus. 



312 APPENDIX. 

ORDER. COLEOPTEKA. 

Fam. CARABIDJE. (Mac Leay,) Genus CALOSOMA. 

(Weber.) 

Calosoma irregulare. N. S. 

^Eneo-nigrum, capite antico ruguloso, thorace subiliter 
ruguloso, stria media, lateribus retusis valde convexis ; 
elytris rugosis lineis sex e punctis auratis punctis, sub- 
marginalibus auratis minoribus. 

^Eneous black; black beneath. Head rugulose in 
front, with an impression and a retuse border on each 
side. Thorax more finely rugulose than the head, with 

i' O 

an impressed middle line, retuse and very convex along 
each side. Elytra less finely rugulose than the head ; 
each with three discal lines of gilded points, and with 
a submarginal line of more minute gilded points. 
Length of the body, 12 lines. 

This species has no regular striated lines on the 
elytra, and is therein quite different from C. calidum 
and from C. frigidum. It is allied to the Siberian (7. 
denticella and to two species from California and Van- 
couver Island. 

Genus CALLISTHENES. (Fischer.) 
Callisthenes pimelioides. N. S. 

Nigra, brevis, lata, obscura, subtilissime punctata; 
capitis lateribus retusis, excavatis, disco antico sublevi ; 
thorace lateribus subconvexis, subretusis, stria media 
tenui ; elytris lineis pustularibus lateribus valde rotund- 
atis. 



APPENDIX. 313 

Calosoma black, short, broad, thick, dull. Head and 
thorax very finely and thickly punctured. Head in 
front, with an almost smooth disc, and a retuse and 
excavated border on each side. Thorax slightly convex 
and retuse along each side, narrower hindward, with a 
slight impressed middle line. Elytra very convex on 
each side ; each with about seventeen lines of minute 
pustules. Length of the body, 8 lines. 

It is somewhat allied to an undescribed Callisthenes 
from California, but is quite distinct. 

Genus CARABUS. (Linn.) 
Carabus bicolor. N. S. 

Niger, breviusculus, subtilissime punctatus ; thorace 
stria media bene determinata; lateribus subconvexis, 
angulis posticis productis ; elytris cupreis lineis sex e 
pustulis elongatis nigris ; lateribus subconvexus. 

Black, rather short. Head and thorax very minutely 
punctured, the former with the usual impression on 
each side in front. Thorax with an impressed distinctly 
marked middle line ; sides slightly convex ; hind angles 
produced, extending over the fore border of the elytra. 
Elytra cupreous; each with three lines of elongated 
black pustules, and with a submarginal line of minute 
impressions ; sides slightly convex. Length of the body, 
8 lines. 

This belongs to the group of C. ligatus and of C. 
Mceander, which it resembles in the sculpture of the 
elytra. 



314 APPENDIX. 

Fam. FEEONIID^:. (De Laporte.) Genus OJIASEUS. 

(Zeigler.) 

Omaseus colligatus. N. S. 

Foem. niger, nitens ; thorace postice subcontracto 
sulco transverse antico excavate stria media striis 
duabus lateralibus parvis margine postico ruguloso ; 
elytris obscuris striatis punctis octo impressis lineis 
duabus submarginalibus punctularibus lateribus subapi- 
calibus subexcavatis. 

Female. Black. Head and thorax shining, almost 
smooth. Head in front with a slight transverse im- 
pressed line, and with two broad longitudinal minutely- 
punctured furrows. Thorax slightly contracted hind- 
ward, rugulose along the hind border, with a curved 
transverse impressed line in front, with a distinct 
middle impressed line, and with two short impressed 
lines which extend to one-third of the length from the 
hind border. Elytra dull ; each with eight longitudinal 
lines, with a row of slight submarginal excavations, and 
with four punctures first, third, and fourth punctures, 
on the third line ; second puncture, on the second line ; 
exterior border, with a very slight subapical excavation. 
Length of the body, 7 lines. 

Genus AMARA. (Bonelli). 
Amara extensa. N. S. 

Nigra, capite foveolis duabus e linea transversa 
impressa connexis ; thorace stria tenui postice subtiliter 
ruguloso sulculis duobus lateralibus ; elytris elongatis 



APPENDIX. 315 

subobscuris lineis bene determinatis, palpis tarsisque 
piceis, antennis basi runs. 

Black, smooth, shining. Head in front with two 
slight discal impressions, which are connected by a 
slight transverse impressed line. Thorax slightly broader 
hindward, with a slight impressed line; space along the 
hind border minutely rugulose, with two short broad 
longitudinal furrows. Elytra elongate, slightly dull; 
each with eight distinctly marked lines, and with minute 
punctures along the exterior border. Palpi and tarsi 
piceous. First and second joints of the antennae red. 
Length of the body, 4 lines. 

This species has a somewhat narrower body and more 
elongated thorax than A. vulgaris, which also inhabits 
North America. 

AMARA COMMUNIS. (Gyllenhahl.) 

^Enea, nitens, capite stria transversa antica stria 
media foveolisque duabus lateralibus posticis; elytris 
striatis ex parte nigricante seneis. 

yEneous, smooth, shining. Clypeus, antennaa, legs 
and underside black. Head with a transverse impressed 
line in front. Thorax with a slight impressed line, and 
on each side with a slight impression near the hind 
border, at half the distance between the line and the 
exterior border. Elytra partly blackish seneous, with 
the usual eight longitudinal lines on each, and with 
impressions along the exterior border. Length of the 
body, 3 lines. 

This species agrees exactly with the European A. 
communis. In sculpture it comes between A. Iwvi- 



316 APPENDIX. 

pennis and A. discors of British North America, and 
the elytra are somewhat shorter than those of A. cali- 
fornica. 

Fam. HARPALID^E. (Mac Leay.) Genus HARPALUS. 

(Latr. 

Harpalus defixus. N. S. 

Niger, nitens, antennis rufesecentibus ; thorace stria 
antica media, striseque media tenuissimis spatio postico 
ruguloso sulculis duobus lateralibus, elytris striatis. 

Male black, smooth, shining ; antennge reddish ; 
thorax slightly excavated in the disc on each side hind- 
ward ; very slightly rugulose along the hind border, 
with a longitudinal impressed line, and in front with a 
transverse impressed line, both extremely slight. Each 
elytron with nine impressed lines. Tibise and tarsi 
piceous. Length of the body, 4| lines. 

Closely allied to H. ceneus. The sides of the thorax 
are less rounded than those of H. interpunctatus, ro- 
tundicollis, laticollis, and carbonarius of British 
North America, and it is very distinct from other 
North American species, such as H. pleuriticus, H. 
basilaris, and H. ochropus. 

Fam. BOMBIDIID.E. (Staph.) Genus PERYPHUS. 

(Megerle.) 

Peryphus cequalis. N. S. 

Subaeneo viridis ; capite antico bisulcato ; palpis, an- 
tennis, pedibusque nigris ; thorace stria media margine 
postico bifo violate ; elytris striatis punctis duobus 
impressis. 



APPENDIX. 317 

Green, slightly tinged with seneous. Head with a 
longitudinal furrow on each side in front ; palpi, an- 
tennae, and legs black. Thorax with an impressed 
middle line, and with an impression on each side by the 
hind border. Elytra with distinctly marked impressed 
lines, and with two punctures on the third line from 
the interior border. Length of the body, 3^ lines. 

Quite distinct from the American P. sordidus and 
P. scapularis. 

Fann. DYTICIDJE. (Leach.) Genus L^ECOPHILUS. 

(Leach.) 

LcBcophilus maculosus. N. S. 

Piceus ; capite thoraceque obscure ; ochraceis elytris 
vittis duabus marginalibus ochraceis postice abbreviatis 
et flexis, punctis duobus posticis marginalibus ochraceis ; 
abdomine ochraceo ; pedibus obscure ochraceis. 

Piceous, smooth, shining. Head and thorax mostly 
dark ochraceous. Elytra with two ochraceous stripes, 
which widen from the base along full half the length 
of the exterior border, and are there bent, and terminate 
in a short streak towards the disk ; two hindward mar- 
ginal ochraceous points on each elytron. Abdomen 
ochraceous. Legs dark ochraceous. Length of the 
body, 3 lines. 

It also inhabits the northern states of America. 

Fam. ALEOCIIARID^E. (Leach.) Genus ATEMELES. 

(Dillwyn.) 

Atemeles reflexus. N. S. 
Ferrugineo rufus, latus ; antennis piceis basi ferru- 



318 APPENDIX. 

gineo rufis incrassatis ; thoracis lateribus valde dilatatis ; 
femoribus latis ; tibiis subarcuatis ; tarsis setosis. 

Ferruginous red, broad. Antennae piceous, shorter 
than the body ; first joint ferruginous red, incrassated. 
Thorax much dilated on each side ; hind angles 
prominent, rounded ; elytra smooth, shining, cover- 
ing almost one-third of the length of the abdomen. 
Legs moderately long ; femora broad ; tibiae slightly 
curved ; tarsi setose. Length of the body, 2^ lines. 

Fam. HTDROPIIILIDJ;. (Leach.) Genus TROPISTERNUS. 

(Solier.) 

Tropistemus binotatus. N. S. 

Cupreo-niger, viridi subnitens ; capitis lateribus 
anticis ochraceis ; thorace vittis duabus latis rnarginali- 
bus ochraceis, maculas duas nigrocupreas includentibus ; 
elytris vittis duabus marginalibus ochraceis postice at- 
tenuatis intus excavatis, pedibus piceis. 

Cupreous black, elliptical, partly and slightly tinged 
with green. Antennae underside black. Head dark 
ochraceous along each side in front. Thorax with two 
broad marginal dull ochraceous stripes, each with an 
oblong oblique cupreous black spot near the hind 
border. Elytra bordered with dull ochraceous along 
the sides of the scutellum and along the exterior border ; 
the two stripes are attenuated hind ward, and are irre- 
gular and excavated on the inner side. Legs piceous. 
Length of the body, 6 lines. 

It is especially distinguished from the other North 
and South American species by the black mark on each 
side of the thorax. 



APPENDIX. 319 

Genus PHILYDRUS. (Solier.) 
Philydrus lividus. (Forster.) 

Luridus, ellipticus, subtilissime punctatus ; thorace 
nigricante subnebuloso ; elytris lineis nigricantibus valde 
indistinctis. 

Lurid, shining, elliptical, extremely minutely punc- 
tured. Head with a black band along the hind border. 
Thorax slightly clouded with blackish. Elytra with 
regular but very minute and indistinct blackish lines. 
Length of the body, 2| lines. 

There is no perceptible difference between this species 
and the European specimens of Pkilydrus lividus. 

Fam. HISTERID.E. (Leach.) Genus SAPRINUS. 

(Erichson.) 

Saprinus consimilis. N. S. 

Ater, glaberrima; capite, thoracis lateribus, elytrisque 
postice subtilissime punctatis; elytris striis octo sub- 
obliquis subtilissimis postice abbreviatis, abdomine sub- 
tilissime punctate. 

Deep black, very smooth and shining. Head, sides 
of the thorax, and elytra, excepting the fore disk, less 
shining, and very minutely punctured. Each elytron 
with four slightly oblique, finely impressed lines, which 
extend from the base to a little beyond the middle. 
Abdomen very finely and minutely punctured, extend- 
ing very much beyond the elytra. Length of the body, 
2| lines. 

Nearly allied to S. assimilis, but the body is rather 
narrower, and the borders of the elytra are less rounded. 



320 APPENDIX. 

Fain. SILPHID.E. (Leach.) Genus NECROPHORUS. 

(Fabr.) 

Necrophorus conversator. N. S. 

Niger, obscurus; subtiliter punctatus; capite nitente, 
subtilissime punctate sulcis duobus, postice connexis; 
thorace marginibus latis subreflexis ; elytris maculis 
sex ochraceis. 

Black, dull, thickly and minutely punctured. Head 
shining, very minutely punctured, with two furrows, 
which converge, and are connected hindward. Thorax 
with a broad and slightly elevated rim ; transverse line 
in front, and longitudinal line distinctly impressed. 
Elytra with six ochraceous spots, of which four form 
an interrupted band before the middle, and the other 
two are near the hind border. Abdomen extending 
much beyond the elytra ; four segments uncovered. 
Length of the body, 9 lines. 

It is quite distinct from the North American N. 
hebes, obscurus, Hallii, Melsheimeri, pygmceus, and 
velutinus. In the markings of the elytra it resembles 
N. defodiens, but the scutellum is much smaller. 

Fam. ATONIID.E. (Mac Leay.) Genus CREMASTOCHEILUS. 

(Enoch.) 

Cremastocheilus armatus. N. S. 

Niger, aspere punctatus ; capite bicornutos ; thoracis 
angulis posticis valde productis ; elytris litura basali 
pallida ; femoribus tibiisque valde dilatatis. 

Black, dull, roughly punctured. Head deeply retuse 
in front, with an acute projection on each side in front 



APPENDIX. 321 

of the eye. Thorax with the four angles smooth, much 
produced and very prominent, the hind angles especially 
so. Elytra broader than the thorax, and a little more 
than twice its length ; each with a pale basal mark. 
Abdomen with a protuberance on each side at the tip ; 
apical segment vertical. Femora and tibia? punctured, 
much dilated. Length of the body, 6 lines. 

It may be distinguished from C. mexicanus by the 
much more protuberant hind angles of the thorax, and 
by the pale mark at the base of the elytra. 

Genus ANOMALA. (Koppe.) 
Anomala t contermina. N. S. 

Badia, subtiliter punctata ; capite, thorace, pectoreque 
canopilosis; abdomini ochraceo ; elytris pallide cervinis 
cano subpubescentibus. 

Chestnut colour, finely punctured. Head, thorax, 
and pectus clothed with hoary hairs. Clypeus retuse. 
Thorax broadest across the hind border, which is slightly 
convex; sides convex. Abdomen ochraceous. Elytra 
pale fawn colour, with thin hoary pubescence, broader 
than the thorax, and about thrice its length. Length 
of the body, 5 lines. 

Fain. MELOLONTHID^E. (MacLeay.) Genus BHIZOTROGTJS. 

(Latr.) 

Rhisotrogus collocatus. N. S. 

Badius, subtiliter punctatus ; thoracis lateribus abdo- 
minis marginibus pedibusque fulvo pilosis ; elytris 
striis paucis indistinctis. 

VOL. II. T 



322 APPENDIX. 

Chestnut brown, finely punctured, a little paler 
beneath. Clypeus with a retuse transversely semi- 
elliptical border. Sides of the thorax, borders of the 
abdomen, and legs with long tawny hairs. Thorax 
much broader hindward than in front; sides convex. 
Elytra with a few indistinct striae, broader than the 
thorax, and more than thrice its length. Length of 
the body, 8 lines. 

Genus ANCYLONYCHA. (Dejean.) 

Ancylonycha nigropicea. N. S. 

Nigricante picea; capite, thorace confertim et subtiliter 
punctata; thoracis lateribus convexis; elytris punctato 
lineatis. 

Blackish piceous, thickly and finely punctured. Cly- 
peus short, slightly retuse, slightly excavated in front. 
Thorax broadest along the hind border ; sides convex. 
Elytra with numerous lines of punctures, broader than 
the thorax, and about four times its length. Abdomen 
very finely punctured, projecting a little beyond the 
elytra. Length of the body, 8j% lines. 

Ancylonycha consequens. N. S. 

Obscure picea ; pectore; abdomine, antennis, pedibus- 
que piceis ; capite thoraceque confertissime punctatis ; 
thoracis lateribus convexis ; elytris punctato lineatis. 

Dark piceous. Underside, antenna, and legs piceous. 
Head and thorax very thickly punctured. Clypeus 
slightly impressed in front. Thorax much broader than 
the head ; sides convex. Elytra with regular lines of 
punctures, a little broader than the thorax, and about 



APPENDIX. 323 

thrice its length. Abdomen projecting very little 
beyond the elytra. Length of the body, 5^ lines. 

This species is very nearly allied to the preceding 
one, but may be distinguished by its smaller size, its 
more thickly punctured head and thorax, and its shorter 
elytra. 

Ancylonycha uninotata. N. S. 

Badia; capite thoraceque confertim punctatis; thoracis 
disco subimpresso; pectore pilis fulvis dense vestito; 
elytris subcarinatis subtiliter punctatis et rugulosis. 

Chestnut colour. Head and thorax thickly punctured. 
Clypeus very slightly excavated in front. Thorax -with 
a small and slight excavation in the disk. Pectus 
thickly clothed with long tawny hairs. Elytra minutely 
punctured and rugulose, with four slight ridges, but not 
with lines of punctures, full thrice the length of the 
thorax. Abdomen thinly punctured, extending some- 
what beyond the elytra. Length of the body, 10 lines. 

Genus SEEICA. (Mac Leay.) 

Serica crassata. N. S. 

Nigra, brevis, ]ata, crassa, obscura; subtilissime punc- 
tata ; antennis pedibusque piceis ; elytris striatis. 

Black, short, broad, thick, dull, very minutely punc- 
tured. Clypeus with a slightly retuse border. An- 
tennas and legs piceous. Thorax broadest across the 
hind border, where it is almost twice the breadth of 
the head; sides very slightly convex. Elytra much 
broader than the thorax, and more than twice its 
length ; each with about nine impressed lines. Length 
of the body, 4 lines. 

Y 2 



324 APPENDIX. 

Fam. BUPKESTID^E. (Leach.) Genus ANCTLOCHEIRA. 

(Eschscholtz.) 

Ancylochira ornata. N. S. 

Aureo-viridis ; capite thoraceque confertim punctatis 
stria longitudinal! ; elytris punctate lineatis cupreo 
bivittatis ; abdomine subtus fasciis auratis apice cupreo. 

Bright golden green. Head and thorax thickly punc- 
tured, with an impressed longitudinal line. Elytra with 
deeply impressed punctured lines, with a purplish 
tinge on each side in front, full four times the 
length of the thorax. Abdomen beneath with a short 

O 

gilded band on the fore border of each segment ; tip 
cupreous. Length of the body, 9 lines. 

The cupreous stripes on the elytra of this species 
distinguish it from A. aurulenta, and from A. decora, 

Fam. ELATERID.E. (Leach.) Genus ADELOCERA. 

(Latr.) 

Adelocera vetusta. N. S. 

Nigra, confertim et subtiliter punctata, squamis 
cinereis ex parte tecta ; thorace postice impresso mar- 
gine bis inciso, angulis posticis subproductis ; elytris 
substriatis. 

Black, dull, thickly and minutely punctured, mostly 
covered with cinereous scales ; these are mostly con- 
fluent, but are here and there isolated, so that various 
parts of the surface are uncovered. Thorax with a 
broad shallow excavation in the hinder disk ; the margin 
with two shallow excavations on each side ; hind angles 



APPENDIX. 325 

slightly produced. Elytra with slight and indistinct 
striae, more than twice the length of the thorax. Length 
of the body, 8 lines. 

Genus ATHOUS. (Eschscholtz.) 
Athous quadrivittatus. N. S. 

Niger ; capite thorace confertissime et subtilissime 
punctatis ; thorace pectoreque rufescente bivittatis ; 
thoracis angulis posticis attenuates acutis ; elytris luteis 
punctato striatis, suturis piceis, tibiis tarsisque piceis. 

Black, shining. Head and thorax very minutely 
and thickly punctured. Thorax and pectus with a broad 
reddish stripe on each side ; hind angles produced into 
two acute spines. Elytra dull luteous, more than twice 
the length of the thorax ; each with nine distinct regu- 
lar punctured striae ; sutures piceous, except towards the 
base; tibias and tarsi piceous. Length of the body, 

7 lines. 

Genus LIMONIUS. (Eschscholtz.) 

Limonius consimilis. N. S. 

Niger, nitens, subtiliter punctatus ; thoracis angulis 
elongatis acutis ; elytrorum striis bene determinatis. 

Black, shining, minutely punctured. Hind angles of 
the thorax elongate, acute. Elytra with the usual 
distinct regular strise, more than twice the length of 
the thorax. Length of the body, 3^ lines. 

Genus DIACANTHUS. (Latr.) 
Diacanthus semimetallicus. N. S. 
Niger; capite thoraceque confertissime et subtilissime 
punctatis ; thorace linea media impressa, angulis posticis 



326 APPENDIX. 

productis, sulcatis, acutis ; elytris ffineo-nigris striatis 
subtilissime rugulosis, basi subsulcatis. 

Black. Head and thorax dull, extremely thickly and 
minutely punctured. Thorax with a slight impressed 
middle line; hind angles produced into two acute 
furrowed spines. Elytra aBneous black, shining, ex- 
tremely minutely rugulose, with many regular distinct 
striae, full twice the length of the thorax ; each elytron 
with a slight excavation in the disk at the base. Length 
of the body, 8 lines. 

Fam. TELLID^E. (Leach.) Genus CLERUS. (Geoffrey.) 
Clerus sobrius. N. S. 

Cupreo niger, nitens, asperepunctatus; capite thorace- 
que cinereo pilosis ; elytris fascia cinerea lata incisa. 

Cupreous black, shining, thinly and coarsely punc- 
tured. Head and thorax with cinereous hairs. Elytra 
with a broad cinereous middle band, which is narrower 
on each side, and is notched in front and behind. Length 
of the body, 5 lines. 

This species is very different from the Californian 
C. holosericeus. 

Fam. BLAPSHLE. (Latr.) Genus IPHTHINUS. (Dej.) 
Iphtkinus sevvilis. N. S. 

Niger, confertissime et subtilissime punctatus ; capite 
thoraceque obscuris; thoracis lateribus convexis non 
retusis, angulis acutis ; elytrorum lineis e punctis elon- 
gatis. 



APPENDIX. 327 

Black, very thickly and minutely punctured. Head 
and thorax dull. Head with an indistinct transverse 
impressed line in front of the eyes. Thorax almost 
twice broader than the head ; sides convex, not retuse ; 
hind angles prominent, acute. Elytra slightly shining, 
subfusiform, broader than the thorax, and nearly thrice 
its length, with regular lines of elongated punctures. 
Length of the body, 1 1 lines. 

Iphthinus servator. N. S. 

Niger, confertissime et subtilissime punctatus ; capite 
thoraceque obscuris ; thoracis lateribus subconvexis, an- 
tice retusis, angulis posticis subproductis ; elytris sub- 
nitentibus lineis e punctis elongatis. 

Black, very thickly and minutely punctured. Head 
and thorax dull. Thorax much broader than the head ; 
sides slightly convex, retuse in front; hind angles 
slightly prominent. Elytra subfusiform, slightly shin- 
ing, broader than the thorax, and nearly thrice its length, 
with regular lines of elongated punctures. Length of 
the body, 1 1 lines. 

This species hardly differs from the preceding one, 
with the exception of the structure of the thorax. 

Iphtkinus subligatus. N. S. 

Niger, confertissime et subtilissime punctatus ; capite 
thoraceque obscuris ; thoracis lateribus convexis, angulis 
posticis productis acutis ; elytris subnitentibus subtiliter 
punctato lineatis. 

Black, very thickly and minutely punctured. Head 
and thorax dull'. Thorax much broader than the head ; 



328 APPENDIX. 

sides convex; hind angles prominent, acute. Elytra 
subfusiform, slightly shining, broader than the thorax, 
and nearly thrice its length, with regular rows of 
minute punctures. Length of the body, 1 1 lines. 

This may be distinguished from the two preceding 
species by the more minute punctures on the lines of 
the elytra. 

Genus ELEODES. (Eschscholtz.) 
Eleodes subtuberculata. N. S. 

Nigra, obscura ; capite thoraceque confertim punc- 
tatis ; thorace lateribus subrectis, angulis anticis acutis ; 
elytris ellipticis, tuberculato-lineatis. 

Black, dull. Head and thorax thickly punctured. 
Head with a transverse impressed line between the 
base of the antennas ; clypeus somewhat shining. Thorax 
somewhat broader than the head, harder, broader behind 
than in front ; sides almost straight ; fore angles acute. 
Elytra elliptical, with numerous lines of minute tu- 
bercles, almost twice broader than the thorax, and 
about thrice its length. Length of the body, 5^ lines. 

Eleodes convexicollis. N. S. 

Nigra ; capite thoraceque sub tilissime punctatis; capite 
incisuris tribus anticis ; thoracis lateribus anticis valde 
convexis ; elytris longiovatis, punctato-striatis. 

Black, rather dull. Head slightly excavated on the 
fore border and on each side in front of the base of the 
antennaB. Head and thorax very minutely punctured. 
Thorax very convex on each side before the middle. 



APPENDIX. 329 

Elytra elongate oval, with distinct punctured strias, 
somewhat broader than the thorax, and more than thrice 
its length. Length of the body, 14 lines. 

Eleodes binotata. N. S. 

Nigra, subnitens ; capite thoraceque subtilissime punc- 
tatis; thorace binotata, lateribus antice, convexis, angulis 
anticis productis acutis ; elytris punctato-striatis. 

Black, slightly shining. Head and thorax extremely 
minutely punctured. Thorax with a slight impression 
on each side of the middle of the disk ; sides convex 
before the middle ; fore angles prominent, acute. 
Elytra subfusiform, with slight punctured strise, nearly 
four times the length of the thorax. Length of the 
body, 10 lines. 

Eleodes conjuncta. N. S. 

Nigra, sat obscura, H. convexicolli affinis ; thoracis 
lateribus minus rotundatis, scutellos majori; elytris 
angustioribus ; capite thoraceque subtilissime punctatis ; 
thorace binotato. 

Black, rather dull, like H. convexicollis in structure. 
Head xnd thorax very minutely punctured. Thorax 
with a shallow discal on each side hindward ; sides less 
convex than those of H. convexicollis. Scutellum 
larger. Elytra narrower ; their sides more linear. 
Length of the body, 13 lines. 

Eleodes latiuscula. N. S. 

Nigra lata, sat obscura ; capite thoraceque confertim 
et subtiliter punctatis; thoracis lateribus anticis convexis; 



330 APrEXDIX. 

elytris substriatis confertissime punctatis, lateribus 
couvexis. 

Black, broad, somewhat dull. Head and thorax 
thickly and minutely punctured. Head with an indis- 
tinct transverse impressed line in front of the eyes ; 
clypeus somewhat shining. Thorax much broader than 
the head ; sides convex in front. Elytra elliptical, very 
thickly punctured, with slight strise, much broader than 
the thorax, and nearly thrice its length ; sides convex. 
Length of the body, 9 lines. 

Fam. HELOPID.E. (Steph.) Genus HELOPS. (Fabr.) 
Helops inclusus. N. S. 

Niger, nitens, subtilissime punctatus ; thoracis lateri- 
bus convexis ; elytris subtilissime striatis. 

Black, shining, very minutely punctured. Head with 
a distinct transverse furrow in front of the eyes. 
Thorax a little broader behind than in front, much 
broader than the head ; sides convex. Elytra with 
several very finely striated lines, a little broader than 
the thorax, and more than twice its length. Length of 
the body, 3^ lines. 

Fam. CANTHAEiDyE. (Leach.) Genus LTTTA. (Linn.) 
Lytta immerita. N. S. 

Nigra, cinereo-tomentosa, subtus cinereo-pubescens ; 
elytris linea marginali tenui cana. 

Black, with cinereous tomentum ; underside with 
cinereous pubescence. Elytra with a slender hoary 
border. Length of the body, 5 lines. 



APPENDIX. 331 

Genus NEMOGNATHA. (Illiger.) 
Nemognatha bicolor. N. S. 

Sublutea, subtilissime punctata; antennis, scutellos, 
pectore, abdomine, pedibusque nigris. 

Dull, luteous, shining; very finely punctured. 
Mouth, antennae, scutellum, pectus, abdomen, and legs 
black. Length of the body, 5^ lines. 

Fam. ATTILABID.E. (Schonhorn.) Genus KHTNCHITES. 

(Herbst.) 

Rhynchites congrua. N. S. 

Nigricante cyanea, aspere punctata ; rostro thoracis 
longitudine, thoracis lateribus convexis; elytris latis 
lateribus subconvexis. 

Blackish blue, roughly punctured. Kostrum as 
long as the thorax, slightly dilated towards the tip. 
Thorax narrower in front; sides convex. Elytra much 
broader than the thorax, and about twice its length ; 
sides slightly convex. Length of the body, 3 lines. 

Fain. CERAMBYCID/E. (Kirby.) Genus EUTRYPANUS. 

(Dejean.) 

Eutrypanus princeps. N. S. 

Mas et Fcem. Niger, punctatus, tomento cano et 
cervino varius ; antennis canis nigro-annulatis ; thorace 
fascia vittisque duabus canis, guttis duabus, anticis 
pallide cervinis ; elytris fusco et cervino variis, fasciis 



332 APPENDIX. 

quatuor dentatis incisis canis. Mas. Antennis corpore 
quadruple longioribus. Foem. Antennis corpore plus 
duplo longioribus, oviductu. 

Male and Female. Black, roughly punctured ; varied 
with hoary and with fawn-coloured tomentum. An- 
tennae hoary, with black rings. Thorax with the hoary 
hue forming a stripe on each side, and a slender curved 
band, in front of which there are two pale fawn coloured 
dots. Elytra with four irregular dentate and notched 
hoary bands ; intermediate spaces partly brown or fawn 
colour. Length of the body, 10 lines. Male. Antennae 
four times the length of the body. Female. Antennae 
more than twice the length of the body exclusive of 
the ovipositor. Ovipositor much more than half the 
length of the body. 

Fain. LEPTUEID^;. (Stephens.) Genus TYPOCERUS. 

(Leconte.) 

Typocerus cervinus. N. S. 

Cervinus; capite thoraceque subtilissime punctatis; 
antennis corporis dimidio longioribus ; thorace biden- 
tato ; elytris pallidioribus diffuse punctatis. 

Female. Fawn colour. Head, thorax, antennas and 
femora darker than the elytra. Head and thorax very 
minutely punctured. Antennas more than half the 
length of the body. Thorax with one longitudinal and 
two transverse impressions, armed on each side with a 
short stout obtuse tooth. Elytra rather largely punc- 
tured. Length of the body, 12 lines. 



APPENDIX. 333 

Genus TOXOTUS. (Serville.) 
Toxotus perductor. N. S. 

Niger ; capite guttis duabus fulvis ; elytris fulvis 
nigro trifasciatis fascia; l a guttulari ; 2 a interrupts ; 
3 a lata ; fasciis duabus ventralibus fulvis ; pedibus 
fulvis ; genubus tarsisque nigris ; femoribus tibiisque 
posticis apice nigris. 

Black, rather dull. Head tawny beneath, and with 
a tawny dot on each side at the base of the antennas. 
Pectus with a broad triangular tawny stripe on each 
side. Elytra tawny, with three black bands ; first band 
very incomplete, consisting of four elongated dots ; 
second band interrupted near the suture ; third broader 
than the second, extending nearly to the tip, which is 
reddish tawny. Abdomen extending a little beyond the 
elytra ; first and second segments beneath with tawny 
bands, which extend along the hind borders of the seg- 
ments, and are dilated in the middle. Legs tawny ; 
knees and tarsi black ; hind femora and hind tibiae with 
black tips. Length of the body, 8 lines. 

Fam. CLYTHEID,E, (Kirby.) Genus CLTTHRA. 
(Laichart.) 

Clythra bisignata. N. S. 

Obscure cyanea, nitens ; an tennis serratis ; elytris 
punctato lineatis, macula basali rufescente. 



Dark blue, shining. Head and thorax smooth. An- 
teimce serrated, not longer than the breadth of the head. 



334 APPENDIX. 

Elytra with lines of minute punctures ; a reddish spot 
on each side at the base by the outer border, which is 
dilated near the base. Length of the body, 3 lines. 



ORDER. NEUROPTERA. 

Fam. SIALID^:. (Leach.) Genus CHAULIODES. (Latr.) 
Ckaidiodes disjunctus. N. S. 

Fuscus, cinereo-pilosus ; capite rufescente punctate, 
postice sulcato, plagis convexis nigris ; mandibulis apice 
nigris ; pedibus luridis ; alis cinereis e maculis plurimis 
fuscis sublineatis; alis anticis plagis quinque, costali- 
bus macularibus fuscis rnaculisque duabus basalibus 
nigris. 

Brown, with cinereous hairs. Head dark reddish, 
thickly punctured ; hind part with longitudinal furrows, 
which intersect some elongated convex black shining 
spaces. Mandibles with black tips. Prothorax elon- 
gated, broader than long, much narrower than the 
mesothorax. Legs lurid. Wings cinereous, with nume- 
rous brown spots and dots, which form incomplete 
transverse lines. Fore wings with some of the spots 
collected into five costal patches ; two large black basal 
spots. Length of the body, 18 lines; of the wings, 48 
lines. 

This species is mostly allied to C. californicus, but 
may be distinguished by its larger size and by the 
difference in the markings. 



APPENDIX. 



335 



LIST OF LEPIDOPTEEA. 



Fain, PAPILIONID^E. 

Gen. PAPILIO. 
Papilio. 

Turnus. (Linn.) 

rutulus. (Boisd.) 

Zelicaon. (Boisd.) 
Parnassius. 

clarius. (Eversm.) 
Pieris. 

Protodice. 

Menapia. (Felder.) 
Colias. 

Chrysotliome. 

Philodice. . 
Danais. 

Archippus. 
Melitoea. 

Pharos. (Boisd.) 

Anicia. (Doubl.) 
Argynnis. 

Aphrodite. 

Callippe. (Boisd.) 



Argynnis. 

Freya. (Var.) 
Vanessa. 

Antiopa. (Linn.) 

Cardui. (Linn.) 

Polychloros. (Linn.) 

C. album. (Linn.) 
Limenitis. 

Lorquinii. (Boisd.) 
Erebia. 

Medusa. 
Ccsnonympha. 

Dams. (Fabr.) 
Lyccsna. 

Pheres. (Boisd.) 

Tribe BOMBYCITES. 

Fam. AKCTIIDJE. (Leach.) 

Gen. HAI/ESIDOTA. (Hubn.) 

Halcsidota. 

*angulifera. (Walk.) 
*roseata. (AValk.) 



ORDER. LEPIDOPTERA. 

Fam. ARCTIID^;. (Leach.) Genus HALESIDOTA. 

(Hubner.) 

Halesidota angulifera. N. S. 

Mas. Pallide lutea; alls anticis fasciis quinque fusces- 
centibus obliquis angulosis; 1% indeterminata; 2 a et 
3% qui connexis; 3 a et 4 ta , qui postice conjunctis; 
5% submarginali, lituris non nullis marginalibus fus- 
cescentibus alls posticis albido-cinereis, venis pallide 
flavescentibus. 

Male. Pale luteous, paler beneath. Proboscis long. 



336 APPENDIX. 

Palpi porrect, pilose, rather slender, not extending be- 
yond the front ; third joint extremely short. Antennae 
moderately pectinated. Abdomen extending much 
beyond the hind wings. Hind tibiae with four rather 
short spurs. Fore wings with five oblique, irregular, zig- 
zag, brownish bands first band basal, very incomplete ; 
second connected with the third in the middle ; third 
and fourth united hindward ; fifth submarginal ; a few 
slight brownish marginal marks. Hind wings whitish 
cinereous ; veins pale yellowish. Length of the body, 
10 lines ; of the wings, 24 lines. 
Closely allied to H. fulvo-flava. 

Halesidota? roseata. N. S. 

Foem. Eoseosrufa ; subtus flavo-pilosa ; capitis fascia 
thoracisque strigis sex pallide flavis ; abdomine roseo 
basi lanuginoso flavescente ; alis anticis strigis basalibus 
pallide flavescentibus, fasciisque tribus exterioribus alb- 
idis macularibus perobliquis; alis posticis albido-cinereis 
subhyalinis. 

Female. Eosy red. Body densely clothed and partly 
pale yellow beneath. Head with a pale yellow band on 
the front. Palpi extremely short. Thorax with six 
longitudinal pale yellow streaks. Abdomen rosy, lanu- 
ginous, and partly pale yellow towards the base, extend- 
ing much beyond the hind wings. Fore wings with 
some pale yellowish streaks towards the base, and with 
three exterior whitish niacular very oblique bands; 
spots mostly cuneiform ; costa straight ; tips slightly 
acute ; exterior border slightly convex, extremely 
oblique ; first and second inferior veins contiguous at 
the base; third very near the second; fourth remote 



APPENDIX. 337 

from the third. Hind wings whitish cinereous, slightly 
hyaline; veins and fringe slightly yellowish. Length 
of the body, 7 lines ; of the wings, 20 lines. 

This species may form a new genus. It differs some- 
what from Halesidota in the structure of the veins of 
the fore wings. 

LIST OF DIPTEEA. 



CULICID^E. (Steph.) 



CULEX. (Linn.) 



Culex. 



#pinguis. (Walk.) 

ASILID.E. (Leach.) 
LAPHRITES. (Walk.) 



LAPHRIA. (Fabr.) 



Laphria. 



"Columbia. (Walk.) 



(ESTRIDJE. (Leach.) 

CUTEREBBA. (Clark.) 

Cuterebra. 

*approximata. (Walk.) 

MUSCIDJE. (Leach.) 
TACHIXIDES. (Walk.) 

ETJRIGASTER. (MaCq.) 

Eurigaster. 

*septentrionalis. (Walk.) 



Order DIPTEEA. 

Fam. CDLICID.E. (Steph.) Genus CULEX. (Linn.) 
Culex pinguis. N. S. 

fo&m. Cervinus, robustus ; rostro apicern versus nigro ; 
abdominis pube subaurata ; pedibus robustis pallidiori- 
bus ; alis cinereis, venis fulvis subpilosis. 

Female. Fawn-colour, stout. Proboscis much longer 
than the head, and the thorax black towards the tip. 
Abdomen with slightly gilded down. Legs stout, paler 
than the body ; tarsi darker. Wings cinereous ; veins 
tawny, slightly pilose ; radial and subapical veins, with 
long forks. Length of the body, 3 lines ; of the wings, 
7 lines. 

VOL. II. Z 



338 APPENDIX. 

Fam. ASILIDJ;. (Leach.) Sub-Fam. LAPHRITES. 
(Wlk.) Genus LAPHEIA. (Fabr.) 

Laphria columbica. N. S. 

Mas. Subseneo-nigro ; capite pilis subauratis densis- 
sime vestito ; mystace e setis nigris ; thorace nigro-piloso, 
fascia subaurato-pilosa ; abdornine apicem versus subau- 
rato piloso ; femoribus posticis in-crassatis nigro-pilosis ; 
tibiis posticis lividis apice nigris ; alis nigricantibus areo- 
larum discis cinereis. 

Laphria Male. Black, with a very slight aeneous 
tinge. Head very thickly clothed with slightly gilded 
hairs ; vertex and hind side with black hairs ; mystax 
composed of black bristles. Thorax clothed with short 
black hairs ; fore part with fawn-coloured pubescence ; 
a band of slightly gilded hairs across the hind part of 
the scutum. Abdomen clothed towards the tip with 
slightly gilded hairs. Legs mostly clothed with slightly 
gilded hairs ; hind femora incrassated with black hairs ; 
hind tibia3 livid, and with slightly gilded hairs, except 
towards the tips. Wings blackish ; discs of most of the 
areolets cinereous ; veins and halteres black. Length 
of the body, 9 lines; of the wings, 16 lines. 

This species has most resemblance to L. posticata, 
from which it may be distinguished by the pale hairs 
on the hind tibiae. 

Fam. CESTRID.E. (Leach.) Genus CUTEEEBEA. (Clark.) 
Cuterebra approximata. N. S. 

Nigra ; capite punctate ; vertice linea glabra sulcata; 
thoracis tomento-cinereo ; abdomirie nigro-cyaneo ; alis 
nigricantibus. 

Black. Head minutely punctured above, slightly 



APPENDIX. 339 

rugulose towards the mouth ; vertex with a slender, 
smooth, furrowed line. Thorax slightly covered with 
dark cinereous tomentum. Abdomen dark blue. Wings 
and alulae blackish ; veins black. Length of the body, 
10 lines ; of the wings, 18 lines. 

Fam. MUSCID^E. (Latr.) Sub-Fam. TACHINIDES. (Wlk.) 

Genus EURIGASTER. (Macq.) 
Eurigaster septentrionalis. N. S. 

Fcem. Nigra, setosa, latiuscula ; capite argenteo- 
cinereo ; vertice aurato ; frontalibus atris ; palpis rufes- 
centibus ; antennis aristae dimidio incrassato ; thorace 
vittis quinque cinereis ; scutelli apice piceo ; abdomine 
cinereo subtessellato ; alis cinereis. 

Female. Black, setose, rather broad. Head silvery 
cinereous, gilded above ; frontalia deep black, widening 
in front ; facialia bordered with bristles along most of 
the length from the epistdma. Palpi reddish. Antennae 
extending to the epistoma ; third joint linear, rounded 
at the tip, full six times the length of the second ; 
arista incrassated for half the length from the base. 
Thorax with five cinereous stripes ; scutellum piceous 
at the tip. Abdomen slightly tesselated with cinereous, 
very bristly towards the tip, a little longer than the 
thorax. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; prsebrachial 
vein forming an obtuse angle at its flexure, straight 
from thence to its tip. 

Order HEMIPTERA. Sub-Order HOMOPTEKA. 
Fam. CICADID.E. (Weitm.) Genus CICADA. (Linn.) 

Cicada occidentalis. N. S. 
Fcem. -- Nigra, subtus albido-tomentosa ; facie et 

Z 2 



340 APPENDIX. 

prothorace testaceo marginatis ; mesothorace lituris 
duabus cuneatis, lateribus margineque postice testaceis ; 
segment orum abdominalium marginibus posticis subtus 
luteis ; femoribus tibiisque testaceo vittatis ; alls vitreis 
basi la?te rufis. 

Female. Bla.ck ; underside with shining whitish to- 
mentum. Head much narrower than the prothorax ; 
transverse furrow in front testaceous ; face transversely 
ridged on each side, with a testaceous border. Pro- 
thorax with four oblique furrows, which converge hind- 
ward ; border testaceous ; sides with slightly gilded 
pubescence, dilated and rounded hindward. Meso- 
thorax with two V shaped testaceous marks, which ex- 
tend from the fore border to the disk, and are indistinct 
except at the tips ; sides and hind border testaceous. 
Abdomen thinly clothed with shining whitish pubes- 
cence ; hind borders of the segments luteous on each 
side and beneath; dorsal opercula testaceous; sheaths 
of the ovipositor greenish. Femora and tibia? with 
testaceous stripes ; fore femora incrassated, with two 
teeth on the underside. Wings vitreous, bright red at 
the base ; veins black, greenish towards the base. Fore 
wings with a greenish costa ; first and second transverse 
veins slanting outward; first parted by more than twice 
its length from the second; third and fourth slightly 
slanting inward. Length of the body, 12 lines ; of the 
wings, 32 lines. 

This species is smaller than G. septemdecim, to which 
it has much general resemblance. 



APPENDIX. 341 



LIST OF HYMENOPTEEA. 



FOBMICIDJE. 



Formica. 



herciilanea. (L.) 
Integra. (Nyl.) 
umbrata. (Nyl.) 



nigra. (Linn.) 
Isevigatas. (Nyl.) 



MUTILLID^!. 



Mut ilia. 



occidentalis. (L.) 



Fam. POMPILHLE. (Leach.) Genus POMPILTJS. (Fabr.) 
Pompilus comparatus. N. S. 

Foem. Niger, subnitens, subtilissime punctatus ; 
metathoracis linea impressa indistincta; abdomine rufo- 
glabro nitente, basi nigro, apicem versus nigricante : 
tibiis posticis tuberculatis ; alls nigricantibus. 

Female. Black. Head and thorax thinly clothed 
with short black hairs, extremely minutely punctured, 
slightly shining. Metathorax well developed, with an 
indistinct impressed middle line. Abdomen red, smooth, 
shining, black at the base, blackish at the tip, a little 
longer than the thorax. Hind tibise tuberculate. Wings 
blackish. Length of the body, 7 lines ; of the wings, 
10 lines. 

Pompilus pyrrhomelas. N. S. 

Fcem. Niger, subnitens, subtilissime punctatus ; an- 
tennis robustis articulo 1 incrassato ; metathorace trans- 
verse subruguloso linea impressa indistincta ; segment- 
orum abdominalium marginibus posticis subglabris; 
tibiis posticis subtuberculatis ; alis ochraceis, basi nigri- 
cantibus, apice fuscescentibus. 

Female. - - Black, extremely minutely punctured, 
clothed with black hairs, slightly shining. Antennae 



34-2 APPENDIX. 

stout, shorter than the thorax ; first joint incrassated. 
Metathorax transversely and minutely rugulose, with an 
indistinct middle impressed line. Abdomen fusiform, a 
little longer than the thorax ; hind borders of the seg- 
ments almost smooth. Hind tibiae slightly tuberculate. 
Wings ochraceous, blackish at the base, brownish at the 
tips. Length of the body, 11 lines; of the wings, 16 
lines. 

LIST OF SPHEGID^E. 

Apathus. 

insularis. (Sm.) 
Bombus. 

vinatus. 

vagans. 
*flavifrons. (Smith.) 

californicus. 



(Kirby.) 
luctuosa. (St. Farg.) 
Pelopceus. (Latr.) 



architeetus. 



APIDJE. 



Aiulrena. 
vicina. 
viclima. 



perplexa. 
nivalis. 



Os mi a. 



simillima. 



TENTHKEDINID^3. 



Sirex. 



*varipes. (Walk.) 
albicornis. (Fabr. ) 



Chrysis. 



*smaragdicolor. (Walk.) 



Order HYMENOPTEEA. 

Fam. UKOCERID.E. (Leach.) Genus SIREX. (Linn.) 

Sirex varipes. 

Fcem. Nigricante cyaneus ; antennis nigris; abdomine 
purpurascente cyaneo, apice irnpresso ; oviductus vaginis 
abdominis dimidio brevioribus ; pedibus rufis ; tibiis 
supra nigris ; alis cinereis. 

Female. Blackish blue, clothed with black hairs. 
Antennae black. Abdomen purplish blue, with a nearly 
circular excavation at its tip. Sheaths of the ovipositor 



APPENDIX. 343 

black, less than half the length of the abdomen. Legs 
red ; conse black ; tibise black above. Wings cinereous ; 
veins black. Length of the body, 10 lines; of the 
wings, 18 lines. 

Fam. APID/E. Genus BOMBUS. 
Bombus flavifrons. N. S. 

Hirsutus, ater; capite, thorace, abdomenisque fascia 
tefluis flavis ; alis nigricantibus ; ano nigro. 

Female. Length, 8^- lines. Clothed with black 
pubescence. The face and vertex have a pale yellow 
pubescence ; that on the underside of the head is black. 
The anterior portion of the thorax before the insertion 
of the wings covered with pale yellow pubescence ; also 
a narrow band of the same colour on the fourth segment 
of the abdomen ; the wings blackish brown. 

This species closely resembles Bombus californicus ; 
from that species it differs in having darker wings, in 
the face and vertex being clothed with pale yellow 
pubescence, and in having a much narrower band on 
the abdomen. 

Fam. CHRYSIDID.E. (Leach.) Genus CHRYSIS. (Linn.) 
Chi^ysis smaragdicolor. N. S. 

Smaragdina, aspere punctata ; antennis viridibus, apices 
versus nigris ; abdominis segmenti 2 l margine postico 
subglabro, 3 1 margine postico subruguloso, 4 brevis- 
simonondentato; tarsis nigris; alis nigricantibus, postice 
cinereis. 



344 APPENDIX. 

Emerald green, thickly and somewhat coarsely punc- 
tured. Antennas black, bright green towards the base. 
Abdomen more finely punctured than the thorax ; 
second segment more finely punctured than the first, 
almost smooth and with purplish blue reflections along 
its hind border ; hind border of the third segment 
slightly rugulose ; fourth segment very short, not 
dentate. Tarsi black. Win^s blackish, cinereous hind- 

o * 

ward; veins black. Length of the body, 7 lines; of the 
wings, 9 lines. 

ARACHNIDS. 

Nepliila plumipes. (Koch.) 

List, with descriptions of New Species of Annelides 
from Vancouver Island. 

I have described the parasite in the keyhole limpet, 
Lepidonotus lordi, nov. sp., and where I found it, in 
Vol. II. 

Lepidonotus insignis. (Baird.) N. S. 

This is a very fine species of the genus Lepidonotus. 
It is rather more than three inches long, and is nearly half 
an inch in breadth exclusive of the seta3 of the feet. 
On the upper surface the body is of a whitish colour, 
marbled with black. The sides, which are covered by the 
elytra, are white, and a broad line runs down the centre 
of the dorsum, throughout its whole length. The feet 
are encircled with fine black circular lines. The elytra, 
eighteen pairs in number, are oval, white, with black 
dots on the outer sides and centre, and they are marked 



APPENDIX. 843 

with a black semicircular patch on the inner edge. 
They do not overlap each other except near the head. 
On the body of the animal they are wide apart, leaving 
the centre of the back exposed. The proboscis is large 
and wrinkled, and the jaws are of a reddish-brown 
colour. The antennae are five in number, the central 
one being nearly three times as long as the external 
pair, and of a pure white colour ; the internal and ex- 
ternal pairs white, tinged with black. The feet are very 
prominent, strong, rounded, conical, and armed with 
seven or eight stout brown bristles. The second branch 
is extremely small, and sends off two or three very small 
white setae. The superior cirrus is tolerably long and 
sharp-pointed ; it is pedunculated, the peduncle being 
stout, conical, and of a deep black colour. The inferior 
cirrus is short, conical, and sharp-pointed. The last 
segment of the body is terminated by two tolerably 
stout but not long cirri.' Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, 
Vancouver Island. (Brit. Mus. Col.) 

Lepidonotus Lordi. (Baird.) N. S. 

This species is about three inches long, and rather 
more than one-third of an inch in diameter at the 
broadest part of the body. It tapers gradually from 
the head to the tail, which is only about one-eighth of 
an inch broad. The colour is of a light brown, a broad 
line of a much darker brown running along the whole 
leno-th of the centre of the back. On the surface a 

O 

groove rung down the centre of the body throughout its 
entire length. The elytra are 35 pairs in number, thin, 
membranous, and of a light brown colour. The two first 
overlap each other slightly in the middle ; but for the 



346 APPENDIX. 

rest of its length the centre of the back is uncovered. 
The antennae are five in number ; the central one short, 
of much the same length as the internal ones ; the two 
external ones the longest, white, with a bright black 
ring round the upper part, but leaving the point white, 
which is acute at the apex. The feet are tolerably 
stout, and the two divisions are both furnished with 
sharp but curved pointed bristles. The superior cirri 
are white, and of a moderate length ; the inferior ones 
being short. - - Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver 
Island. (Brit. Mus. Col.} 

Lepidonotus Gh^ubei. (Baird.) N. S. 

This species is about 2 inches long and ^ an inch 
broad. The body underneath is of a uniform brown 
colour; above it is whitish, mottled with black. The 
elytra are 18 pairs in number, nearly round, rough with 
small tubercles, edged by a slightly raised margin, and 
mottled with black and white. They do not meet each 
other in the centre, but leave a portion of the back 
uncovered. The superior cirri are rather long, blunt 
pointed, pedunculated, marked with a black spot at the 
base, where they issue from the peduncle, and are 
ringed with black a little distance from the extremity. 
The inferior cirri are short and acute pointed. The 
feet are broad, and the bristles of both branches are 
stout, of a bright brown colour, and toothed on one 
edge near the extremity. The antennas are five in 
number, and are all short, and nearly of equal length. 
Hab. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. (Brit. 
Mus. Col.) 



APPENDIX. 347 

Lepidonotus frag ills. (Baird.) N. S. 

This species, owing to its brittle character, is in too 
bad a state to describe accurately. It is about 2^ or 3 
inches long, and is rather narrow. The scales or elytra 
appear to be very thin and membranous ; but as they 
are deciduous it is difficult to ascertain the number, 
especially as the worm is broken into several pieces. 
The superior cirri are stout and club-shaped at the tip. 
There appear to be no ventral cirri on the feet, and the 
superior cirri become nearly obsolete on the lower half 
of the body. 

It was found by Mr. Lord, adhering to a star-fish ; 
' but,' he says, ' it is next to impossible to obtain one 
perfect, as they break themselves to pieces on the 
slightest touch, or however carefully killed.' In this 
respect it resembles a species of Annelide belonging to 
the group of vermiform Aphrodisians, described by 
Eisso, as occurring in the Mediterranean under the 
name of Eamolpe fragilis. Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, 
Vancouver Island. (Brit. Mus. Col.} 

Nereis foliata. (Baird.) N. S. 

This Nereid is of a dark grey colour above, and of a 
lighter hue underneath, somewhat iridescent It is 15 

O 7 

inches in length, and at the broadest part is about 
| an inch in breadth. It tapers gradually towards the 
tail, which terminates in two short, blunt, caudal 
styles. The first or occipital segment of the body is 
about twice the length of the second. The tentacular 
cirri are unequal, and vary in length ; in the largest 
and best developed specimen the longest are only about 



348 APPENDIX. 

as long as the first two segments ; while in another spe- 
cimen nearly of the same size they are nearly equal in 
length to the first four segments, and iu one or two 
small specimens not a third the length of the two just 
named. These cirri are equal in length to at least 
eleven of the first segments of the body. The shorter 
ones are only about half the length of the first segment 
of the body. The feet are well developed, the supe- 
rior branchial appendages are large and in the form of a 
leaf, giving the animal at first sight the appearance of a 
species of Phyllodon. The antennas are shorter than the 
palpi, which are strong and conical in shape. Hob. 
Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. (Brit. MILS. Col.} 
This species approaches very nearly to Nereis virens 
from Newfoundland (vide Middendorf, Sibirische Eeise 
Anulos 6, tab. i., figs. 2-6). 

Nereis bicanaliculata. (Baird.) N. S. 

This is rather a small species, about 2 inches long, 
and 1\ lines in breadth. It is of a dull white colour, 
and is remarkable for having a channel running down 
both the dorsal and ventral sides. The channel on the 
dorsal surface is rather deep, commencing from the 
eleventh ring, and continues to the tail ; the channel 
itself is quite smooth, the divisions or rings of the body 
not showing on its surface. On the ventral surface the 
channel shows marks of the divisions or rings into 
which the body is divided. The head is small, the 
antennae about equal in length to the palpi, and the 
tentacular cirri are equal to about five or six rings of 
the body. The upper portion of the body is rounded, 



APPENDIX. 349 

and not channelled ; and the tail terminates in a round 
blunt knob without caudal filaments. The feet are 
rather small, but are rendered unusually distinct from 
the peculiar manner in which the rings or divisions of 
the body are interrupted by the channel running along 
the centre of the body. It tapers very gradually, and 
almost imperceptibly for some time, from the head to 
the tail. Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. 
(Brit. Mus. Col.) 

Glycera corrugata. (Baird.) N. S. 

This annelide is about 4 inches in length, exclusive 
of the proboscis, which, where exserted, is -Jths of an 
inch long, and is about 3 lines in breadth ; the proboscis 
is 4 lines at its greatest diameter. The .head is rather 
short and conical, and strongly ringed. The antennae 
are somewhat broad. The feet are broad, composed of 
two lobes, and are destitute of branchial filaments. The 
bristles are jointed, and the seta3 straight and sharp. 
The segments of the body are very numerous, composed 
of a double ring, the one on which the feet are set being 
the narrower of the two, and raised ; while the whole 
surface of the body, especially on the upper side, is 
densely, though not very strongly, corrugated throughout 
its whole length. The proboscis is densely scabrous, 
and covered with very short dark-coloured bristles. 
The body tapers to a narrow point posteriorly, and 
terminates in a loosely-connected short lobe, armed at 
the extremity with a slightly-curved, horny, sharp- 
pointed claw. Hab. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver 
Island. (Brit. Mus. Col.} 



350 APPENDIX. 

Sabellaria saxicava. (Baird.) N. S. 

This worm lives in the rock. The tube in which it 
lodges is solitary, and is evidently hollowed out of the 
solid (though not a very hard) rock by itself, and 
appears to be quite round. The thoracic portion of the 
body is round, the abdominal flattened, with an im- 
pressed line running down through its whole length. 
The head is surmounted by an opercular disc, composed 
of two rows of stout dissimilar bristles (palece). The 
inner row consists of about ten stout cylindrical sharp- 
pointed bristles of a dark-horn colour, gradually in- 
creasing in size from the dorsal margin towards the 
ventral. The outer row consists of about eighteen 
bristles, not so stout, flattened, and finely denticulated 
on both sides for about half the length. The post- 
occipital segment of the body is long, of a dark colour, 
somewhat wrinkled, and marked with three or four 
fleshy tubercles on each side. The thoracic feet are 
three pairs, and are broad but short. As only one 
specimen was found, it was thought unadvisable to 
dissect the whole worm out, in consequence of which 
the extremity has not been seen. I am unable to say 
whether it terminates in a caudal appendage or not. 

The length of the exposed portion of the worm is 1 
inch, the breadth about 2 lines ; probably the part en- 
closed in the tube may be of about equal length. Hab. 
Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. (Brit. Mus. 
Col.) 



APPENDIX. 351 

List of Fishes collected in the Salt and Fresh Waters 
of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. 

J 



SALMONID.E. 



Sal mo. 



c 



purpuratus. (Pallas.) 
spectabilis. (Grd.) 



Fario. 



stellatus. (Girard.) 



Fario Lordii. (Nov. Sp.) 
(Giinther: Fishes, Vol. VI. p. 148.) 

Scales minute. Head and body rather compressed ; 
the height of the head equals the length of the head, 
and is two-ninths of the total (without caudal); the 
length of the head is one-half of the distance between 

O 

the snout and the vertical from the origin of the 
dorsal fin. Snout very obtuse, scarcely longer than the 
diameter of the eye, which is three-fourths of the width 
of the interorbital space. The lower jaw is a little shorter 
than the upper ; maxillary of moderate width, scarcely 
reaching to the vertical from the margin of the orbit. 
Teeth of moderate strength ; those along the medium 
line of the hyoid are very small. Praoperculum with 
a very distinct lower limb. Fins rather small ; the 
length of the pectoral is less than that of the head 
(without snout), or one-half of the distance of its root 
from the ventrals ; caudal fin slightly emarginate. Back 
and sides reddish olive ; sides with numerous round 
light-coloured spots. Belly whitish, powdered with 
reddish olive ; paired fins and anal colourless ; caudal 
immaculate. Pyloric appendages very long and wide. 



3,52 



APPENDIX. 



4 This is one of the smallest species of charr, both our 
specimens having the abdomen filled with mature ova.' 

This very interesting little charr's habits would have 
been described, when speaking of the Salmonidas in 
Vol. I., had it been named as a new species in time. 
The specimens in the British Museum collection I 
caught with an artificial fly in a small stream that flows 
down the west slope of the Cascades, near the Skaget 
flat, to join the Fraser at Fort Hope. 



Salmo. 

paucidens. (Richardson.) 
quinuat (Richardson) (or 

Semeetlek). 
Scouleri. 

paucidens (or slzoin). 
Gairdneri (or cha-cha-lool). 
lycaodon (or Keasoo, Ekewan, 

and Kutch-kutch). 
TJialeicthys. 

pacifieus. (Grd.) 
Coregomts. 

quadrilateralis. 
Gasterosteus. 
serratus. 
Pugetti. 
concinnus. 
spinachia. 
Chirus. 

hexagramrmis. 
decagrammus. 
constellatus. 
Sebastes. 

paucispinis. 
melanops. 
Agonus. 

acipenserinus. 
Coitus. 

polyacanthocephalus. 
bubalis. 



Cen tridermicthys. 

maculosus. 

parvus. 

gulosus. 

armatus. 

globiceps. 
Platichthys. 

rugosus. 
Plcuronectes. 

stellatus. 

umbrosus. 

bilineates. 

hippoglossus ? 

digrammus (Giinther : nov. 
sp., Brit. Mus. Cat. Fishes). 
Vide Vcl. I. Flat-fishes. 
Pleuronicthys. 

guttulatus. (Grd.) 
Malletta. 

coerulea. 
Engraulis. 

mordax. (Grd.) 
Syngnathus. 

arundinaceus. (Grd.) 
Acipenser. 

transmontamus. Vide Vol. I. 

Sturgeon fishing. 
Chimatra. 

Colleii. 
Acanthus. 
Suckleyi. 



APPENDIX. 3o3 

Fam. EMBIOTOCID.E.* 

(Gunther: Fishes, Vol. IV. p. 245.) 

Body compressed, elevated, or oblong, covered with 
cycloid scales. Lateral lines continuous. One dorsal 
fin, with a developed spinous process, and with a scaly 
sheath along the base, which is separated by a groove 
from the other scales ; anal with three spines and nume- 
rous rays. Ventral and thoracic fins with one spine and 
five soft rays. Tusk in the jaws small ; palate smooth. 
The lower pharyngeal bone triangular. Branchiostegals, 
five or six. Grills, four pseudo-branchiae, well developed ; 
air-bladder large, simple. Stomach without csecal 
appendage; pyloric appendage, none. Viviparous. 
Vertebrae 17 20. (Ditrema aggregatum.} 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Dorsal spines . . 7 11 . . 1. DITREMA. 
Dorsal spines . . 1618 . . 2. HYSTEROCABPUS. 

DITREMA. 

Body compressed, elevated, covered with cycloid 
scales of moderate or rather small size ; mouth rather 
small ; teeth conical, in a single series. One dorsal fin, 
the spinous portion of which is less developed than the 
soft, and composed of seven to eleven spines ; anal with 
three spines and numerous closely-set rays. Gills, four, 
with a cleft behind; pseudo-bran chia3 well developed. 



Ditrema. 



Jacksoni. 

laterals. 

Temminckii. 

vacca. 

toxotes. 



Ditrema. 
Caryi. 



aggregatum. 
furcatum. 

brevipinnes (Gunther : nov. 
sp. Fishes, Vol. IV.). 



* Vide Viviparous Fishes, Vol. I. 
VOL. II. A A 



354 APPENDIX. 

Ditrema brevipinnes. (Sp. ch.) 

The three posterior dorsal spines are the longest ; a 
little shorter than the anterior rays. Scales on the 
cheeks in two series. The length of the body is one- 
third of the total length (without caudal). Jaws equal 
in length anteriorly ; lips thin, the fold of the lower 
being interrupted in the middle. The maxillary does not 
quite extend to the anterior margin of the eye. Length, 
7 inches. Head somewhat longer than high, its length 
being nearly one-fourth of the total (without caudal). 
The upper profile is somewhat concave above the eye. 
The diameter of the orbit equals the extent of the 
snout, and is two-sevenths of the length of the head : 
cleft of the mouth oblique ; tusk rather small, in a 
single series. The scaly part of the cheek is narrower 
than the orbit. The dorsal commences vertically above 
the root of the ventral ; the first spine is very short, 
the three following increase in length ; the three last, 
being longest, of nearly equal length, half as long as 
the head ; the anterior rays a little longer than the last 
spine. The anal fin commences below the seventh 
dorsal ray, and extends further backwards than the 
dorsal fin, its spines being very distinct; caudal emargin- 
ate. Back, dark greenish olive; belly, silvery. 

I obtained this little species in Esquimalt Harbour, 
but it has the same range and general distribution as 
the others. Vide Vol. I. 



Ditrema. 



minimum, 
arcuatum. 
megalops. 



Ditrema. 



Agassizii. 

anale. 

rhodoterum. 



APPENDIX. 355 

Gen. HYSTEKOCAKPFS. 

Body compressed ; oblong ; covered with scales of 
moderate size. Mouth rather small ; teeth conical, in a 
single series. One dorsal fin with from sixteen to 
eighteen spines ; anal, with three spines and numerous 
rays. Intestinal tract short, with two circumvolutions. 

Hysterocarpus. 
Traskii. 

Cyclopterus orbis. (Nov. Sp. : Griinther.)* 
(D. 7-19. A. 9.) 

The head and body form one orbicular mass, ter- 
minating posteriorly in the narrow, short tail. The 
plates with which the skin is covered are very rough, 
tubercular, and conical ly elevated in the centre. A 
series of large plates runs along the upper orbital edge 
to the side of the back ; two series of smaller ones run 
along the middle of the interorbital space, and along 
the base of the dorsal fins. Other large plates occupy 
the middle of the sides and the lateral part of the belly ; 
the plates on the side of the head, before the pectoral. 
are only half as large as those described, and those 
on the tail are smaller. The mouth is transverse, not 
extending on to the side of the head, and one-half the 
greatest width of the interorbital space. The ventral 
disk is shorter than the head, subcircular, entire, and 
surrounded by fifteen flat papillae. The caudal fin is of 
moderate length, rounded, and composed of nine simple 
rays. Vent nearer to the ventral disk than to the anal 
fin. 

* British Museum Catalogue of Fishes. 

A A. 2 



356 APPENDIX. 

Found attached to the bones of a large whale that 
was washed into Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. 

ECHINEIS. (Species not made out.) 

I found a number of these curious sucking fish (with 
the sucking disk on the top of their heads) attached 
to the turtle we caught with a hook and line. Vide 
Vol. I., ' The Voyage.' 

G-ADFS. (Species not determined.) 



List of Shells taken on the eastern side of Vancouver 
Island, dredged in ten fathoms water, and collected 
from rocks between tide marks. 

MUKICID.E. 

Fusus orphens. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, 8 to 10 fathoms. 
sitkensis. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks. 
Columbella gausapata. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, 10 fathoms. 
Nassa mendica. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, 8 fathoms. 

Chrysodomus tabulatus. (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Testa fusiformi, aspera, confertim lirata, liris in- 
sequalibus, minute sqtiamatis ; anfractibus sex seu 
septem, superne concavoangulatis seu canaliculatis, 
ultimo magno, trientes duos longitudinis testaB ade- 
quante, et antrorsum in canalem flexuosum desinente, 
saturis distinctis ; labro interne super columellam iu- 
flecto, umbilicum tegente. 

Only one specimen of this species was collected, and 
it had for some time been the abode of a hermit-crab. 



APPENDIX. 357 

It is of a perfectly fusiform shape, and the upper parts 
of the whirls next to the suture are flattened and hol- 
lowed out into broad channels. The surface is encircled 
with numerous, close-set, raised striae, which are of 
unequal size, every fourth one being larger than any of 
the intermediate ones, and all roughened by numerous 
small scales. The whirls are six or seven in number 
(the upper ones being unfortunately broken otf), and 
rapidly increase in size, the last being two-thirds the 
length of the whole shell. The columella is covered 
with a turned-over plate of the inner lip, the umbilicus 
being partially concealed by it. The lower canal is of 
considerable length, and is bent to one side. The 
mouth appears to be rather small in proportion to the 
size of the shell. When taken, it was inhabited by a 
species of Pagurus, and, as is customary with shells 
similarly inhabited, was considerably injured by its 
parasitic tenant. Long. 3 inches; lat. 1^ inch. Hob. 
Esquimalt Harbour. (Brit. Mus.} 

BUCCINHLE. 

Murex lactuca. (Esch.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks; 

very abundant. 

Vitularia aspera. (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Vit. Testa fusiformi, purpurea, scabra, elongata, 
longitudinaliter plicato-costata, transversim lirata, liris 
crebris et minutissime squamatis ; anfractibus sex, 
ultimo trientes duos longitudinis testae adequante, iu 
canalem rectum, longiusculum, apertum, desinente ; 
columella planulata, fauce albida ; labro externo intus 



358 APPENDIX. 

dentato, extus serrato ; operculo oblongo, nucleo in 
margine externo sito. 

This shell partakes much of the character of a species 
of Murex ; but the oblong operculum, with its nucleus 
situated on the external edge towards the middle, places 
it among the Buccinidce. It is of a purple colour ; and 
the surface of the shell is rough, with numerous small 
scales on the raised stria? which encircle it. The longi- 
tudinal plaits or varices are about ten in number, and 
are least distinct on the last whirl. The mouth is ovate, 
and the canal of moderate length and straight. Long. 
1 inch; lat. ^ inch. Hab. Esquimalt Harbour. (B-rH. 
Mus.} 

PYRAMIDELLID^:. 

Murex foliatus. (Lamk.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks. 
Purpura emarginata. (Reeve.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks. 

Chemnitzia vancouverensis. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa elongato-turrita, cylindrica, longitudinaliter 
oblique forte costata ; anfractibus novem, ultimo 
superne indistincte costato, infra Isevigato ; apertura 
parva, rotundato-ovato; suturis impressis. 

This shell is peculiarly ribbed. The eight upper 
whirls are strongly and somewhat obliquely ribbed ; but 
on the last, whicli is the largest, the ribs are indistinct 
on the upper half, and on the lower half disappear 
altogether. The interstices between the ribs, which in 
the penultimate whirl are about sixteen in number, 
appear smooth. The sutures are deep and well marked. 
The mouth is rather small, and is somewhat rounded- 



APPENDIX. 359 

ovate. In consequence of its having been in the crop 
of a duck, the surface of the shell is somewhat eroded, 
and the apex is broken off. Long. J- inch. Hab. 
Esquimalt Harbour. (Brit. Mus.) 'Taken from the 
crop of a pin-tail duck.' /. K. Lord. 

LITTOBINHLE. 

Littorina scutulata. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks; 

abundant. 
sitkana. (Phil.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks ; abundant. 

Amnicola Hindsii. (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Testa retusa, solidula, viridi-olivacea, minute lon- 
gitudinaliter undulato-striata, transversim obscure li- 
rata, apice erosa ; anfractibus quatuor, ultimo prope 
medium retuse-carinato, ad suturas canaliculate, suturis 
impressis ; columella albida ; apertura caerulescente. 

This species resembles somewhat the Paludina 
seininalis of Hinds, but it differs in contour, being 
bluntly carinate round the middle of the last whirl, and 
in being channeled round the suture. The surface of 
the shell is distinctly marked with numerous flexuous 
striae, the lines of growth, and near the sutures is rather 
indistinctly marked with circular strias. I have named 
it after a good conchologist, who has described several 
shells from the West Coast of America, and who ob- 
tained the specimens of his shell from the Eio Sacra- 
mento, California. Long., largest specimens, nearly 
i- inch ; lat. rather more than ^ inch. Hab. Kiver 
Kootanie, and stream at the foot of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, British Columbia. (Brit. Mas.} 



360 APPENDIX. 



Lacuna carinata. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, 10 fathoms of water. 

MELANIAD.E. 

Melania salicula. (Gould.) From swift streams west of the Cascades. 

CEEITHIAD^E. 

Potamides filosus. (Gould.) Macaulay's Point, at extreme low water. 

CALYPTE^ID^E. 

Crepidula excavata. (Brod.) Esquimalt Harbour, at low water. 

exuviata. (Nutt.) Esquimalt Harbour, in holes bored by Saxicavje 

between tide marks. 

- unguiformis. (Lamk.) Esquimalt Harbour, and attached to stones 

between tide marks. 

nummaria. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, and attached to stones 

between tide marks. 

adunca. (Sowerby.) Esquimalt Harbour, and attached to stones 

between tide marks. 

Calypteea fastigiata. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, 8 to 10 fathoms 
water. 

TROCHID.E. 

Ziziphinus annulatus. (Gray.) Macaulay's Point, low water. 

- ligatus. (Gould.) 

Trochus pollygo. (Martin.) Esquimalt Harbour, collected by Dr. Lyall. 
Margarita custellata. (Sowerby.) Macaulay's Point, low water. 

FISSURELLIB.E. 

Fissurella crutitia. (Gould.) Macaulay's Point, low water. Many of 
the fish contained a parasitic worm, Lepidonotus Lordii. Vide 
Vol. I. 



APPENDIX. 361 



TECTUEID^E. 



Tectura leucophea. (Nutt.) Between tide marks. 
persona. (Esch.) 

- patina. (Esch.) 

- testudinali. (Nutt.) 



instabilis. (Gould.) 
- mitella. (Menke.) 

scutum. (Esch.) 

Cumingii. (Reeve.) 
Scurria mitra. (Esch.) 



All common along the coast, on 
rocks between tide marks. 



CHITONID.E. 



Ischnochiton levigatus. (Fat.) 

- dentiens. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, dredged 10 fathoms. 
Chiton Wosnessenskii. (Midd.) 

- muscosus. (Gould.) Kocks between tide marks. 

- stelleri. (Gould.) Macaulay's Point. 
Tonicia lineata. (Gray.) Dredged 10 fathoms. 
Katharina tunicata. (Gray.) Eocks between tide marks. 



BULLINID^E. 

Bullina (Tornatina) eximia. (Nov. Sp.) 

Testa cylindracea, viridi-lutescente, striata; striis 
minutis, confertis, undulatis ; spira concava, excavata ; 
apertura longa, ad basin effusa ; labro acuto ; columella 
prope basin subito arcuata. 

Two or three specimens of this pretty species of 
Bullina were dredged, with the animals alive, in 12 
fathoms water; and several others were taken out of the 
stomach of a pin-tail duck shot in the harbour. The 
shell is cylindrical, and minutely striated with numerous 
flexuous lines. The spire is very short and concavely 



362 APPENDIX. 

excavated ; while the aperture is of considerable length, 
and the columella at the base suddenly arched. Long, 
i inch. Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. 
(Brit. Mus.} 

HELICIDJE. 

Helix TWnsendiana. (Lea.) Sumass Prairie, British Columbia. 

- fidelis. (Gray.) Common east and west of the Cascades ; occurs 

6,000 feet above sea level. 

- Dupetit-Thouarse. (Desch.) Sumass Prairie and Vancouver Island. 

- villicata. (Forbes. ) Sumass Prairie and Vancouver Island. 

- Columbiana. (Lea.) Banks of the Fraser River. 

SUCCINHLE. 

Succinea rusticata. (Gould.) Sumass Prairie. 

Suc&inea HawJdnsii. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa elongato-obovata, tenui, pellucida, nitida, 
undulato-striata, rubella, intus margaritacea, spira acuta; 
anfractibus quatuor, convexis, ultimo duos trientes 
longitudinis testa? adequante, sutura impressa, apertura 
ovali, inferne effusa. 

This shell is of an elegant form, and of a pinkish 
colour, with the interior of a pearly lustre. It is smooth 
and shining, but marked with waved striae of lines of 
growth. It resembles very much in figure the Succinea 
Pfeifferi of Europe, but is of a still more elegant shape, 
and of a brighter hue. 

I have named it after Lieut.-Col. Hawkins, R. E., 
Commissioner of the British North -American Boundary 
Commission. Long, f inch ; lat. ^ inch. Hab. Lake 
Osoyoos, British Columbia. (Brit. Mas.*) 



APPENDIX. 363 



LIMNJEID.E. 

Lymnea stagnalis. (Linn.) Lake Osoyoos, replaced west of the Cascades 

by L. Sumassii. 

Lymnea Sumassii. (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Testa elongata, attenuata, cornea, fragili ; anfractibus 
sex, ultimo cseteris duplo majore; apertura mediocri; 
columella forte plicata ; superficie externa, sub lente, 
creberrime et minutissime decussata. 

This species of Limncea approaches L. elodes of Say, 
but is more elongated, more fragile, and has the colu- 
mella very strongly plicated. The surface of the shell, 
when seen under a lens of moderate power, is finely 
decussately striated. It is of a horny colour, and is of 
an elongated shape. Long., largest, 1^ inch ; lat. ^ inch. 
Hob. Sumass Prairie, Eraser Eiver, British Columbia. 
(Brit.Mus.) 

Lymnea megasoma. (Say.) Lake Osoyoos, and streams west of Rocky 

Mountains. 
Physa heterostropha. (Say.) Found only east of Cascades. 

Physa LordL (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Testa tenui, majuscula, cornea, tumida, gibbosa, 
apertura magna; labro acuto, linea alba seu fusca ex- 
terne notato ; superficie externa minutissime decussata ; 
anfractibus sex, duobus primis minutis, nigro tinctis, 
ultimo tumido, casteris quadruplo majore. 

This species is one of the largest of the genus, and is 
much swollen and gibbous. The outer lip is generally 
marked with a streak of brown edged with white, which 



364 APPENDIX. 

mark is left in those specimens which are of older 
growth, leaving a white callous-looking line of growth 
edged with brown, nearly in the centre of the last whirl, 
which is verv large, being about four times the size of 

/ ft * o 

all the others put together. The two upper whirls, 
which are very small, are of a black colour. The sur- 
face of the shell is finely decussately striated. 

The Physa heterostropha of Say abounds in the 
Sumass Prairie, on the Fraser River; but its place 
seems to be taken on the higher ground towards the 
Eocky Mountains by the Ph. Lordi. Long, from f to 
1 inch; lat. from 1 to f inch. Hab. Lake Osoyoos, 
British Columbia. (Brit. Mus.) 

Planorbis trivolvis. (Say.) Common west of the Cascades, replaced 

by P. corpulentis east. 
- corpulentis. Abundant in the Osoyoos lakes. 

Ancylus Kootaniensis. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa ovata, cinerea, concentrice striata,- vertice 
antico, obtuso ; intus nitida. 

The shell is of an ovate form, and is concentrically 
striated, though the stria3 only appear on the lower 
two-thirds of its surface, the apex being smooth and 
shining. Internally the shell is shining and somewhat 
pearly. Long. inch ; lat. inch. Hab. Rivers Koo- 
tanie and Spokan. {Brit. Mus. ) 

VENERIM:. 

Chione Lordi. (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Testa minuta, ovato-trigona, nitida, concentrice 
transversim sulculata, umbonibus prominulis, nitidio- 



APPENDIX. 36.5 

simis, lunula nulla, extus lutescente seu albidi-olivacea, 
intus alba, marginibus tenuissime crenulatis ; sinu pallii 
brevi, obtusa. 

This shell was taken in considerable numbers from 
the crop of a pin-tail duck, shot in the harbour of 
Esquimalt, Vancouver Island. 

It is a small species, of an ovate-triangular shape, a 
smooth shining appearance, and a light olive colour. 
The surface is concentrically marked with slight grooves. 
The beaks are prominent and very shining. Internally 
the surface is white, the margins of the shell very finely 
crenulate, and the pallial impression short and blunt. 
Long, nearly inch; lat. rather less than inch. 
Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island. (Brit. 
Mus.) 

"Venus rigida. (Gould.) Vancouver Island, mud between tide marks. 
Saxidomus squalidus. (Desh.) Vancouver Island, mud between tide 
marks. 

Sphcerium (Cyclas) tumidum. (Baird: Nov. Sp.) 

Testa ovato-trigona, tumida, olivacea, conferte 
transversim concentrice forte costata; umbonibus pro- 
minentibus, necnon erosis ; interne cserulescente ; mar- 
gine ventrali rotundato. 

This shell is of a tumid, swollen figure, and of an 
ovate-trigonal shape. The colour externally is dark 
olive, and it is strongly ribbed concentrically. The 
beaks are prominent, and frequently eroded. The inner 
surface is of a bluish tint. The ventral or lower margin 
is rounded. Long. % inch ; lat. rather more than ^ inch. 
Hab. Sumass Prairie, Fraser River, British Columbia. 
(Brit. Mus.} 



366 APPENDIX. 

| 

Sphcerium (Cyclas) Spokani. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa rotundato-ovata, cornea concentrice trans- 
versim conferte minute striata, nitida, sublente obsolete 
punctata; umbonibus rotundatis, obtusis; interne albida; 
margine ventral! rotundato. 

This shell is smaller than the preceding, more 
rounded, and with more obtuse beaks. The strise or 
riblets are much less distinct ; the colour is pale horny 
externally, and white internally. It has a shining 
appearance ; but when examined by the lens, the surface 
is seen to be indistinctly punctate. The specimens 
taken from the Spokan Eiver are much larger than 
those collected in the Kootanie. Lono-. rather less than 

o 

i inch ; lat. rather more than 1 inch. Hob. Kivers 
Spokan and Kootanie. (Brit. Mus.} 

TELLINID.E. 

Tellina nasuta. (Conrad.) Esquimalt Harbour, mud between tide marks. 

Lyonsia saxicola. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa ovato-oblonga, medio gibba, tenui, fragili, 
antice products., clausa, postice compressiuscula, hiante ; 
umbonibus magnis, incurvis ; epidermide olivacea, 
striata ; margine dorsal! rectiusculo, margine ventrali 
flexuoso, hiante. 

This species is the largest of the genus that has yet 
been discovered. It is of an ovate-oblong shape, gib- 
bous in the centre, produced anteriorly, compressed 
posteriorly and gaping. The beaks are large and 
incurved : it is covered with an olive-coloured epider- 



APPENDIX. 367 

mis, which is striated transversely. The ventral margin 
is gaping and flexuous. This species resembles consi- 
derably the L. navicula of Adams and Eeeve (' Zoology 
of the Voyage of the Samarang '), from the Sooloo Sea, 
and might be taken for a very large specimen of it, 
and, indeed, is considered to be so by Mr. Adams him- 
self, who informed me he had taken identically the same 
species, as to size, &c., from the seas of Japan. Besides 
the size, habitat, and place of abode, this species differs 
from L. navicula in the form of the anterior extremity 
of the shell and the more gaping ventral margin. 
Owing to the peculiar place of abode (holes in the 
rocks), it varies considerably in size and form ; but in 
all the specimens which I have seen, ten in number, it 
does not vary in the produced anterior extremity. The 
striae seen on the surface of the epidermis do not appear 
to extend from it to the shell underneath. It lodges 
always in holes in the rocks, from which it is very dif- 
ficult to extract it, without breaking it ; for it would 
appear to take up its abode in a small hole, enlarging 
it as it increases in size itself. The substance of the 
shell, without being very thin, is exceedingly brittle ; 
and few specimens were brought over without being- 
cracked across in various places, apparently in the act 
of drying. The ossicle covering the front of the inter- 
nal cartilage is strong and well developed. The length 
of a moderate-sized specimen is about 3 inches, of a 
large specimen 4-^ inches ; the breadth from the beaks 
to the ventral margin is about 2 inches and 2^ inches. 
Hob. Holes in rocks in Esquimalt Harbour, Van- 
couver Island. (Brit. Mus.} 



368 APPENDIX. 

CARDIID^l. 

Cardium corbis. (Mart.) Esquimalt Harbour, dug from sand between 
tide marks ; grows to a great size, and is an important article 
of Indian diet. 

Leda fossa. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa elongata, ovali, antice multo breviore, rotun- 
data, postice elongata, in rostrum subacutum producta, 
transversim undulato-costata, in latere antico fossa trans- 
versa notata ; utnbonibus promiuulis, margins ventrali 
rotundato ; intus Isevi; epidermide tenui, lutescente, 
nitida induta. 

This little shell is of an elongate form, much reduced 
posteriorly ; and near the anterior extremity it is 
marked by a longitudinal depression or pit, upon which 
the ribs are nearly obsolete. Long, rather more than 
^ inch ; lat rather less than ^ inch. Hab. Esquimalt 
Harbour, Vancouver Island ; dredged in from 10 to 15 
fathoms water, by Dr. Lyall, of H.M.S. 'Plumper.' 
(Brit Mus.) 

PHOLADHLE. 

Teredo fimbriata. (Jeff.) Nai-ni-mo Harbour; very destructive to 
wood piles. Some pieces of wood in British Museum are 
honeycombed, and only under water 4 months. 

SAXICAVID.E. 

Saxicava rugosa. (Lamak.) Esquimalt Harbour, between tide marks. 

Crassatella Esquimalti. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa parva, cordato-trigona, crassiuscula, olivacea, 
transversim undato-plicata, antice producto-rotuudata, 



APPENDIX. 369 

postice subtruncata, margine ventral! rotundata, um- 
bonibus prominulis, lunula longe caudata. 

This species approaches very much in sculpture to 
the C. corrugata of Adams and Keeve (' Zoology of 
the Voyage of the Samarang '), from the Sooloo Sea, 
but differs very much in shape. The peculiar undulate 
plications are chiefly discernible near the umbones, the 
plicas or ribs on the lower third of the shell being 
plain. The beaks are nearly central and prominent ; 
the anterior extremity is somewhat produced, while pos- 
teriorly the shell is somewhat truncate. Long, rather 
more than inch ; lat. nearly | inch. Hob. Esquimalt 
Harbour, Vancouver Island. (Brit. Mus.} 

UNIONID^l. 

Anodonta cognata. (Gould.) Very abundant east and west of the 

Cascades. 
Alasmadonta angulata. (Say.) Columbia River, Fort Colville, not 

strictly in British Columbia. 

MYTILID^E. 

Mytilus trossulus. (Gould.) Abundant, rocks between tide marks. 
californiensis. (Conrad.) Abundant, grows to an immense size, 

sought as an article of diet by the Indians along the Vancouver 

Island coast. 

Nucula lyalli. (Baird : Nov. Sp.) 

Testa ovate-triangular!, tumida, crassa, umbonibus 
prominulis, antice breviore, subrostrata, postice declivi, 
elonga,ta, margine ventrali rotundato, epidermide oli- 
vacea induta, longitudinaliter utrinque costata, costis 
fortibus, medio divaricatis ; intus margaritacea ; margine 

VOL. II. B B 



370 APPENDIX. 

ventrali subcostato ; dentibus anticis ad numerum un- 
decim, posticis novemdecim. 

This very interesting species is the fourth of this 
peculiar divaricately ribbed group which has been dis- 
covered in a recent state. The three others are Nucula 
divaricata and N. castrensis of Hinds, and N. mirabilis 
of Adams and Eeeve. This species approaches very 
nearly to the fossil species from the Crag, N. cobboldice, 
but differs from it in being less transversely ovate, in 
having the beaks more prominent, the posterior row of 
teeth in the hinge fewer in number (in N. cobboldice 
they are 22), and in the costations being stronger in 
proportion to the size of the shell, and much fewer in 
number. It was with some hesitation that I decided 
upon describing it as a new species ; but these marks, 
the size, and the habitat all induce me to consider it as 
distinct. I have named it after Dr. Lyall, of H.M.S. 
' Plumper,' who has sent us only one specimen. Long, 
rather more than ^ inch ; lat. rather more than ^ inch. 

- Hob. Esquimalt Harbour, Vancouver Island ; 
dredged by Dr. Lyall, H.M.S. ' Plumper,' in from 
8 to 10 fathoms. (Brit Mus.) 

PECTENLTLE. 

Pecten hericius. (Gould.) Esquimalt Harbour, 8 to 10 fathoms water. 
Hinnites giganteus. (Gray.) Kocks between tide marks. 

OSTKID.E. 

Ostrea edulis. (Lamk.) Abundant along the island and mainland 

coasts. 
Placunanomia cipio. (Gray.) Eocks between tide marks. 



APPENDIX. 371 

List of Diatomacece from Gatherings in British Co- 
lumbia and on the shores of Vancouver Island. 
Kindly classed for me by Dr. Wilson. (119 Species.) 

Fam. i. Eunotiece. 

Epithemia turgida. Columbia Kiver ; Pend'Oreille Kiver ; Lake 
Osoyoos ; Cow Creek. 

proboscidea. Columbia River. 

- granulata. Columbia River ; Pend'Oreille River ; Lake Osoyoos. 

gibba. Pend'Oreille River ; Cow Creek ; Lake Osoyoos. 

- sorex. Columbia River. 

argus. Pend'Oreille River ; Lake Osoyoos. 

- ventricosa. British Columbia. 

Eunotia arcus. Tributary of Kootenay River ; Tobacco River ; Spokan 
River. 

- arcus (var.) Tributary of Moyee River; Pend'Oreille River. 
Himantidium arcus. Columbia River. 

- bidens. British Columbia. 

Fam. ii. Meridiece. 

Meridion circulare. Tributary of Kootenay ; Tobacco River ; Cow 
Creek. 

- constrictum. Pend'Oreille River. 

Fam. iii. Licmophorece. 

Podosphenia Ehrenbergii m. 10 fathoms. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. iv. Fragillariece. 

Odontidium Harrisonii. Pend'Oreille River ; Cow Creek ; tributary of 
Kootenay ; Tobacco River. 

hyemale. Tributary of Kootenay River; Moyee River; Tobacco 

River. 

- mesodon. Source of Tobacco River. 
Nitzschia sigmoidea. Cow Creek. 

- amphioxys. Cow Creek. 

minutissima. Tributary of Kootenay. 

- angularis m. Vancouver Island. 

- sigma m. 10 fathoms. Vancouver Island. 

B B 2 



372 APPENDIX. 



Fam. v. Surirellece. 

Synedra affinis m. Shores of Vancouver Island. 
Cymatopleura solea. Columbia Eiver ; Pend'Oreille River. 

elliptica. Columbia River. 
Surirella biseriata. Columbia River. 

- splendida. Columbia River. 

- gemma m. Vancouver Island. 
Campylodiscus costatus. Columbia River. 

parrulus m. Vancouver Island. 

- striatus m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. vi. Striatellece. 

Rhabdonema arcuatum m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 

Tabellaria fenestrata. Spokan River. 

Grammatophora marina m. Shores of Vancouver Island. 

mexicana m. Shores of Vancouver Island. 

serpentina in. Shores of Vancouver Island. 

serpentina (var. /3). Smith m. Vancouver Island. 
Gephyria media m. Vancouver Island. 

Eupleuria pulchella m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. vii. Melosirece. 

Cyclotella Dallasiana. Columbia River. 

operculata. Tributary of Kootenay River. 
Hyalodiscus Isevis m. Vancouver Island. 

subtilis m. Shores of Vancouver Island. 

Podosira hormoides m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 
Melosira orichalcea. Columbia River ; Pend'Oreille River ; Lake 
Osoyoos. 

- marina m. Vancouver Island. 

nummuloides m. Vancouver Island. 

varians. Pend'Oreille River ; Cow Creek ; Spokan River. 

- subflexilis. Columbia River. 

Fam. viii. Coxinodiscece. 

Coxinorliscus radiatus in. Shores of Vancouver Island. 

ovulus iridis m. Vancouver Island. 



APPENDIX. 373 

Fam. viii. Coxinodiscese continued. 
Coxinodiscus subtilis in. Shores of Vancouver Island. 
Actinocyclus undulattis in. Vancouver Island. 

- subtilis in. Vancouver Island. 
Actinoptychus senarius in. Vancouver Island. 
Arachnoidiscus Ehreubergii m. Vancouver Island, at 8 fathoms. 

Fam. ix. Eupodiscece. 

Auliscus coelatus m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. x. Biddulphece. 

Biddulphea aurita m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 

tumida m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 

- Isevis m. Vancouver Island. 
Isthmia nervosa m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. xi. Anguliferece. 

Triceratium Monterayii m. Vancouver Island. 
Amphitetras antediluviana m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. xii. Chcetocerece. 

Chsetoeeros incurvum m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. xiii. Cononeidece. 

Cononeis placentula. Columbia Kiver ; Pend'Oreille Eiver ; tributary 
of Kootenay. 

pediculus. Tributary of Kootenay. 

Thwaitesii. Columbia Eiver. 

pseudomarginata m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 10 fathoms. 

distans m. Vancouver Island, at 10 fathoms. 

- concentrica m. Vancouver Island. 

scutellum m. Vancouver Island. 

- diaphana in. Vancouver Island. 

splendida m. Vancouver Island. 

- dirupta in. Vancouver Island. 

- nigrescens (Grcville). New species. Vancouver Island. 

oregana (Greville). New species. Vancouver Island. 



374 APPENDIX. 



Fam. xiv. Achnauthece. 

Achnauthidium lanceolatum. Pelouse ; Cow Creek ; tributary of 

Kootenay. 
Achnauthes brevipes m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 

- exilis. Cow Creek. 

Fam. xv. Cymbellece. 

Cymbella maculata. Tributary of Kootenay River. 

- Ehrenbergii. Columbia River. 

Cononema cymbiforme. Kootenay River ; Pend'Oreille River. 

lanceolatum. Columbia River ; Kootenay River ; Spokan River ; 

Lake Osoyoos. 

- lanceolatum, var. cornutum. Columbia River. 

cistula. Columbia River. 

Amphora ovalis. Columbia River ; Pend'Oreille River ; Cow Creek. 

ventricosa m. Vancouver Island. 

Fam. xvi. Gomphonemece. 

Gromphonema marimim m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 10 
fathoms. 

dichotornum. Tributary of Kootenay River; Spokan River. 

- curvatum. Tributary of Kootenay River. 

geminatum. Columbia River ; tributary of Kootenay River. 

- capitatum. Kootenay River. 

Herculaneum. Columbia River ; Spokan River; Cow Creek. 

- acuminatum. Pend'Oreille River. 

- tenellum. British Columbia. 

constrictum. Lake Osoyoos. 

Fam. xvii. Naviculacece. 

Navieula dicephala. Tributary of Kootenay River. 

- rhomboides. Tributary of Kootenay River; Columbia River; Moyee 

River. 

- elliptica. Tributary of Kootenay River; Lake Osoyoos; Pend'Oreille 

River. 

maxima. Columbia River. 

- gibberula. Columbia River; Pend'Oreille River ; Cow Creek. 

- didyma m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 



APPENDIX. 375 

Fam. xvii. Naviculaceae continued. 
Navicula crabro m. Vancouver Island. 
- leptogongyla. Cow Creek. 

Smithii m. Vancouver Island, at 10 fathoms. 

rhombica m. Vancouver Island. 

varians. Lake Osoyoos. 

Stauroneis pulchella m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 1 fathom s . 

phceniceutron. Source of Tobacco River. 

anceps. Columbia Eiver. 

gracilis. Peud'Oreille Eiver. 

Pleurosigma formosum m. Vancouver Island, at 10 fathoms. 

speciosum m. Vancouver Island. 

intermedium m. Vancouver Island. 

naviculaceum in. Vancouver Island. 

fasciola m. Esquimalt Harbour. 

Fam. xviii. Actiniscece. 

Dictyocha gracilis m. Shores of Vancouver Island, and at 8 fathoms. 

fibula m. Shores of Vancouver Island. 
Mesocena elliptica m. Vancouver Island. 



THE END. 



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